Publication Directory Results - Grube, Joel

Reference Number: SLK3202                  Year of Publication: 2014
Authors: Grube, Joel; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon
Keywords: Adolescents, Public Health Policy, Tobacco
Citation: Lipperman-Kreda, S.; Friend, K.B.; and Grube, J.W. "Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking," Journal of Primary Prevention, 35(2): 85-91, 2014. doi: 10.1007/s10935-013-0336-x PMCID: PMC3943983 [Available on 2015/4/1]
Abstract: Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice.


Reference Number: SLK3201                  Year of Publication: 2014
Authors: Grube, Joel; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon
Keywords: Adolescents, Availability, Economic, Availability, Physical, Community Studies, Tobacco
Citation: Lipperman-Kreda, S.; Grube, J.W.; and Friend, K.B. "Contextual and community factors associated with youth access to cigarettes through commercial sources," Tobacco Control, 23:39-44, 2014. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050473.Epub2012Oct23 PMCID: PMC3578042 [Available on 2015/1/1]
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study examines contextual and community-level characteristics associated with youth access to tobacco through commercial sources in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. METHODS: The study is based on data from access surveys conducted by four confederate buyers (two men and two women) in 997 tobacco outlets. City demographics, adult smoking prevalence, and measures of tobacco outlet density, local tobacco retailer licencing and cigarette tax were included. RESULTS: Multilevel regression analyses indicated that buyer's actual age, a male clerk and asking young buyers about their age were related to successful cigarette purchases. Buyer's actual age and minimum age signs increased the likelihood that clerks will request an identification (ID). At the community level, a higher percentage of minors, higher education, and a greater percentage of African-Americans were associated with an increased likelihood of a successful purchase. Lower percentage of minors, lower education, lower percentage of African-Americans, and having a local tobacco retailer licencing were associated with the retailer asking for an ID. Additionally, supermarkets charged significantly more for a pack of cigarettes than small markets, whereas, smoke/tobacco shops and drug stores/pharmacies charged less. Higher prices were associated with higher median household income and greater percentage of Hispanics. Findings about community characteristics, however, differed by cigarette brand. CONCLUSIONS: This study enhances our understanding of the associations between contextual and community characteristics and youth access to tobacco through commercial sources which can help policymakers to identify and target at-risk communities and outlets to decrease youth access to tobacco.


Reference Number: SLK3102                  Year of Publication: 2014
Authors: Grube, Joel; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon
Keywords: Adolescents, Availability, Physical, Tobacco
Citation: Lipperman-Kreda, S.; Mair, C.; Grube, J.W.; Friend, K.B.; Jackson, P.; and Watson, D. "Density and proximity of tobacco outlets to homes and schools: Relations with youth cigarette smoking," Prevention Science (2013 November 21). PMCID: PMC4029873 [Available on 2015//5/21
Abstract: This study investigated the associations of youth cigarette smoking with tobacco outlet densities and proximity of tobacco outlets to youth homes and schools across different buffers in 45 midsized California communities. The sample comprised 832 youths who were surveyed about their smoking behaviors. Inclusion criteria included both home and school addresses within city boundaries. Observations in the 45 cities were conducted to document addresses of tobacco outlets. City- and buffer-level demographics were obtained and negative binomial regression analyses with cluster robust standard errors were conducted. All models were adjusted for youth gender, age, and race. Greater densities of tobacco outlets within both a 0.75 and 1-mile buffer of youth homes were associated with higher smoking frequency. Neither tobacco outlet densities around schools nor distance to the nearest tobacco outlet from home or school were associated with youths past-30-day smoking frequency. Lower population density and percent of African Americans in areas around homes and lower percent of unemployed in areas around schools were associated with greater smoking frequency. Results of this study suggest that restricting outlet density within at least 1-mile surrounding residential areas will help to reduce youth smoking.


Reference Number: MJP3201                  Year of Publication: 2014
Authors: Grube, Joel; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Alcohol Policy, Availability, Physical, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values
Citation: Paschall, M.J.; Lipperman-Kreda, S.; Grube, J.W. "Effects of the local alcohol environment on adolescents’ drinking behaviors and beliefs," Addiction, 109:407-416, 2014. PMCID: PMC3945163 [Available on 2015/3/1]
Abstract: AIMS: To examine relationships between characteristics of the local alcohol environment and adolescent alcohol use and beliefs in 50 California cities. DESIGN: The study used longitudinal survey data collected from adolescents; city-level measures of local alcohol policy comprehensiveness, policy enforcement, adult drinking and bar density; and multi-level modeling with three levels (city, individual, time), allowing for random effects. Models included interaction terms (time × alcohol environment characteristics) and main effects, controlling for city and youth demographic characteristics. Analyses also examined possible mediating effects of alcohol-related beliefs. SETTING: Fifty California cities (50000-500000 population). PARTICIPANTS: Random samples of 1478 adolescents and 8553 adults. MEASUREMENTS: Past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking, and alcohol-related beliefs (e.g. perceived alcohol availability) among adolescents; past 28-day alcohol use among adults; ratings of local alcohol control policies; funding for enforcement activities; bars per roadway mile. FINDINGS: Local alcohol policy comprehensiveness and enforcement were associated with lower levels of past-year alcohol use (betas=-0.003 and -0.085, P<0.05). Bar density was associated with a higher level of past-year alcohol use (beta=1.086, P<0.01). A greater increase in past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking over time was observed among adolescents living in cities with higher levels of adult drinking (betas=0.224 and 0.108, P<0.01). Effects of bar density appeared to be mediated through perceived alcohol availability and perceived approval of alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking are related to characteristics of the local alcohol environment, including alcohol control policies, enforcement, adult drinking and bar density. Change in adolescents' drinking appears to be influenced by community-level adult drinking. Bar density effects appear to be mediated through perceived alcohol availability and approval of alcohol use. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.


Reference Number: MB3201                  Year of Publication: 2014
Authors: Bersamin, Melina; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Expectancies, Media Studies, Social Influence
Citation: Ragsdale, K.; Bersamin, M.; Schwartz, S.J.; Zamboanga, B.L.; Kerrick, M.R.; and Grube J.W. "Development of sexual expectancies among adolescents: Contributions by parents, peers and the media," Journal of Sex Research, 51(5):551-560, 2014. [Epub ahead of print 2013 Apr 30] PMCID: PMC3884044 (Available on 2014/10/30)
Abstract: To expand the scant research on sexual expectancies development among non-sexually active adolescents, we examined the relationship between adolescents' exposure to four socializing agents-mother/female guardian, father/male guardian, peers, and television programs with high sexual content-and their endorsement of four sexual expectancies: social benefit, pleasure, social risk, and health risk. Data are from Waves 2 and 3 of a three-wave annual longitudinal study conducted among California adolescents, the majority of whom were not sexually active (N = 914, 84%). Structural equation models were conducted to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the socializing agents and the sexual expectancies. Cross-sectional results indicate associations between peer sexual communication and social benefit, pleasure, and social risk expectancies. A positive association was found between exposure to music videos and social benefit expectancies, and a negative association was found between exposure to music videos and health risk expectancies. Longitudinal results suggest that communication with peers positively predicted pleasure expectancies and negatively predicted social risk expectancies. No other socializing agents were associated with any sexual expectancies. An invariance test found that significant correlations were similar across the different age groups. Results suggest that efforts to support positive sexual decision making among non-sexually active adolescents should target peer sexual communication.


Reference Number: JG3201                  Year of Publication: 2014
Authors: Grube, Joel; Russell, Cristel; Russell, Dale
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Media Studies, Risk Perception
Citation: Russell, C.A.; Russell, D.W.; Boland, W.A.; and Grube, J.W. "Television's cultivation of American adolescents' beliefs about alcohol and the moderating role of trait reactance," Journal of Children and Media, 8(1):5-22, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17482798.2014.863475 PMCID: PMC3963162 [Available on 2015/1/1]
Abstract: Cultivation research has shown that heavy television viewing is linked to audiences' generalized, and often skewed, views of reality. This research investigates whether television viewing is related to adolescents' views about the consequences of drinking and whether psychological trait reactance moderates this cultivation effect. Results from a survey of 445 American teenagers show that cumulative exposure to television is linked to reduced beliefs about alcohol's negative consequences and greater intentions to drink. These effects were greater for adolescents low on trait reactance. This research adds to the general psychological research on trait reactance as a moderator of media influences and makes a substantive contribution toward furthering our understanding of the media and public health concerns that surround risky adolescent behaviors. KEYWORDS: adolescence, cultivation, persuasion, psychological reactance, television


Reference Number: RS3201                  Year of Publication: 2014
Authors: Grube, Joel; Saltz, Robert; Treno, Andrew
Keywords:
Citation: Saltz, R. F.; Grube, J.W.; and Treno, A. J. "Lessons from comprehensive environmental community prevention trials." In L. M. Scheier (Ed.), Handbook of Drug Prevention. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association (In press).


Reference Number: SLK3101                  Year of Publication: 2014
Authors: Grube, Joel; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon
Keywords: Adolescents, Norms, Social Influence, Tobacco
Citation: Thrul, J.; Lipperman-Kreda, S.; Grube, J.W.; and Friend, K.B. "Community level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends," Journal of Youth and Adolescence, November 17, 2013. PMCID: PMC24241785 [Available on 2015/5/17]
Abstract: Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3 % female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.


Reference Number: PG3201                  Year of Publication: 2014
Authors: Grube, Joel; Gruenewald, Paul; Paschall, M.J.; Saltz, Robert; Treno, Andrew
Keywords: Alcohol Policy, Community-Based Prevention Programs, Prevention Strategy
Citation: Treno, A.J.; Gruenewald, P.J.; Grube, J.W.; Saltz, R.; and Paschall, M.J. "Environmental approaches to prevention: a community-based perspective." In R.K. Ries, D.A. Fiellin, S. Miller, and R. Saitz. (eds.), Principles of Addiction Medicine (Fifth Edition), pp. 353-362. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer, 2014.


Reference Number: JG3102                  Year of Publication: 2013
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Alcohol, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Consumption Patterns/Models, Drinking and Driving
Citation: Campos, V.R.; Duailibi, S.; Laranjeira, R.; de Souza e Silva, R.; Pinsky, I.; and Grube, J.W. "Drinking and driving in Southeastern Brazil: Results from roadside surveys," Addictive Behaviors, 38(1):1442-1447, Jan 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.07.007
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study is to present data from a roadside survey study on drinking and driving and alcohol consumption in southeastern Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional roadside survey study using a questionnaire and breathalyzer data is the method used to determine the prevalence of drinking and driving and to examine whether socio-demographic characteristics and drivers' behavior, attitude and alcohol consumption predicted positive blood alcohol content (BAC). The data were gathered from 2005 to 2007 through roadside surveys conducted on high volume public roads in four cities in southeastern Brazil. A total of 4182 randomly selected drivers took part in the research. Of these drivers, 3488 (83.4%) completed the questionnaire and agreed to take a breath test. Results: Overall, 24.6% of drivers had a detectable blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and 15.9% had a BAC above the legal limit (0.6 g/l) at the time of the study. Logistic regression controlling for locale (city), sex, age and marital status was used to predict whether each driver would present a positive breath test. Socio-demographic characteristics, driving behaviors and attitudes, and alcohol consumption patterns were included as predictors. These analyses indicated that those who believed drinking and driving was a serious offense were about two-thirds as likely to have a positive breath test, and that drivers reporting a pattern of regular alcohol use were three times as likely to have a positive breath test. Conclusions: These findings indicate that drinking and driving is relatively common in Brazil, and that it occurs considerably more frequently than similar surveys suggest, is the case in other countries.


Reference Number: JG3001                  Year of Publication: 2013
Authors: Grube, Joel; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Availability, Physical, Community-Based Prevention Programs, Enforcement, Evaluation Research
Citation: Flewelling, R.L.; Grube, J.W.; Paschall, M.J.; Biglan, A.; Kraft, A.; Black, C.; Hanley, S.M.; Ringwalt, C.; Wiesen, C.; and Ruscoe, J. "Reducing youth access to alcohol: Findings from a community-based randomized trial," American Journal of Community Psychology, 51(1-2):264-277. doi: 10.1007/s10464-012-9529-3. PMCID: PMC3790581
Abstract: Underage drinking continues to be an important public health problem and a challenge to the substance abuse prevention field. Community-based interventions designed to more rigorously control underage access to alcohol through retailer education and greater enforcement of underage drinking laws have been advocated as potentially effective strategies to help address this problem, but studies designed to evaluate such interventions are sparse. To address this issue we conducted a randomized trial involving 36 communities to test the combined effectiveness of five interrelated intervention components designed to reduce underage access to alcohol. The intervention was found to be effective in reducing the likelihood that retail clerks would sell alcohol to underage-looking buyers, but did not reduce underage drinking or the perceived availability of alcohol among high school students. Post hoc analyses, however, revealed significant associations between the level of underage drinking law enforcement in the intervention communities and reductions in both 30-day use of alcohol and binge drinking. The findings highlight the difficulty in reducing youth drinking even when efforts to curtail retail access are successful. Study findings also suggest that high intensity implementation of underage drinking law enforcement can reduce underage drinking. Any such effects of enhanced enforcement on underage drinking appear to be more directly attributable to an increase in perceived likelihood of enforcement and the resultant perceived inconveniences and/or sanctions to potential drinkers, than to a reduction in access to alcohol per se.


Reference Number: BMF3101                  Year of Publication: 2013
Authors: Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Drug Use, Drugs, Illicit, Marijuana, Norms
Citation: Friese, B. and Grube, J.W. "Legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use among youths," Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy, 20(1):33-39, 2013 Feb 1. PMCID: PMC3638722
Abstract: AIMS: This study examined the relationship of youth marijuana use and perceived ease of access with the number of medical marijuana cards at the county-level, and marijuana norms as indicated by percent of voters approving legalization of medical marijuana in 2004. METHODS: Survey data from 17,482 youths (ages 13 - 19) in Montana and county-level archival data, including votes for the legalization of medical marijuana and the number of medical marijuana cards were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. FINDINGS: Living in a county with more medical marijuana cards was not related to lifetime or 30 day marijuana use. However, voter approval of medical marijuana was positively related to lifetime and 30 day use. Perceived ease of access to marijuana was positively related to medical marijuana cards, but this relation became non-significant when voter approval was controlled. Among marijuana users, marijuana cards and voter approval were positively related to perceived ease of access. CONCLUSIONS: The relation between medical marijuana cards and youth use may be related to an overall normative environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. Interventions to prevent youth marijuana use should focus on adult norms regarding use by and provision of marijuana to youths.


Reference Number: JG3101                  Year of Publication: 2013
Authors: Grube, Joel; Moore, Roland
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Native Americans, Young Adults
Citation: Gilder, D.A.; Luna, J.A.; Roberts, J.; Calac, D.; Grube, J.W.; Moore, R.S.; and Ehlers, C.L. "Usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic," American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 20(2):1-26, 2013. PMCID: PMC3788675
Abstract: This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results could be used by clinic staff to screen for underage drinking and associated problems in youth served by the clinic, and the process of organizing, evaluating, and implementing the survey results accomplished several important goals of community-based participatory research.


Reference Number: JG3003                  Year of Publication: 2012
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Community-Based Prevention Programs, Context, Drinking/Drug Use, Drug Use
Citation: Driscoll, D.L.; Dotterrer, B.; Collins, D.; Ogilvie, K.; Grube, J.; and Johnson, K. "Demographic and contextual factors associated with inhalant use among youth in rural Alaska," International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 71:1-4, 2012. PMCID: PMC3368953
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Abuse of harmful legal products that can be inhaled or ingested is a serious and growing problem in many rural Alaskan communities, and particularly so among preteens. METHODS: This study analyses data collected during baseline measurements of a 5-year NIH/NIDA-funded study entitled A Community Trial to Prevent Youth's Abuse of Harmful Legal Products in Alaska. Youth in 8 communities located throughout the state participated in a survey during the fall of 2009 to measure the prevalence and availability of harmful legal products (n=697). The goal of the analysis presented here is to compare the contextual factors of inhalant users and non-users in rural Alaskan communities. RESULTS: As reported in national surveys of substance use among youth, participants in this study indicated using alcohol more than any other substance. Inhalants were the second-most common substance abused, higher than either cigarettes or marijuana. Lifetime use varied among demographic factors such as age, gender and ethnicity as well as contextual factors including academic performance, parent employment, household living situation and income. When compared to non-users, significantly larger proportions of participants reporting lifetime inhalant use indicated easy availability of inhalants in their home, school and retail outlets. Users were also significantly more likely than non-users to have consumed alcohol. CONCLUSION: Results of this study may inform the development of effective interventions in other rural communities.


Reference Number: BMF3002                  Year of Publication: 2012
Authors: Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel; Moore, Roland
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Family Studies
Citation: Friese, B.; Grube, J.W.; and Moore, R.S. "How parents of adolescents store and monitor alcohol in the home," The Journal of Primary Prevention, 33(2-3):79-83, June 2012. doi: 10.1007/s10935-012-0267-y. PMCID: PMC3407279
Abstract: In this study, we explored how and where parents store alcohol in the home, and how they monitor this stored alcohol. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of youths, aged 15-18 years, in northern California. We found that parents typically stored alcohol in unsecured locations easily accessible to adolescents. Parental monitoring of alcohol included counting or marking bottles and hiding alcohol. However, parents reported that they relied primarily on their memory and intuition to monitor alcohol and admitted that they would not notice if small amounts of alcohol disappeared.


Reference Number: BMF3004                  Year of Publication: 2012
Authors: Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel; Moore, Roland
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Drinking Behavior, Family Studies
Citation: Friese, B.; Grube, J.W.; Moore, R.S.; and Jennings, V.K. "Parents’ rules about underage drinking: A qualitative study of why parents let teens drink," Journal of Drug Education, 42(4):379-391, 2012. NIHMSID: NIHMS548596
Abstract: Semistructured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous, and harm reduction. Deliberate reasons included passing on knowledge about drinking responsibly and appreciating alcohol. Parents also spontaneously decided to let their teen drink. Some of these spontaneous situations involved feeling pressure from other adults to let their teen drink. Another reason was a desire to reduce potential harm. Parents feared that forbidding underage drinking would harm their relationship with their teen and potentially lead to drunk driving. Prevention efforts aimed at parents should take into account parents' motivations to let teens drink. (Published Abstract)


Reference Number: JG3002                  Year of Publication: 2012
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Children, Community-Based Prevention Programs, Inhalants
Citation: Johnson, K.W.; Grube, J.W.; Ogilvie, K.A.; Collins, D.; Courser, M.; Dirks, L.G.; Ogilvie, D.; and Driscoll, D. "A community prevention model to prevent chlidren from inhaling and ingesting harmful legal products," Evaluation and Program Planning, 35(1):113-123, February 2012. PMCID: PMC3210444 [Available 2013/2/1]
Abstract: Children's misuse of harmful legal products (HLPs), including inhaling or ingesting everyday household products, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, constitutes a serious health problem for American society. This article presents a community prevention model (CPM) focusing on this problem among pre and early adolescents. The model, consisting of a community mobilization strategy and environmental strategies targeting homes, schools, and retail outlets, is designed to increase community readiness and reduce the availability of HLPs, which is hypothesized to reduce HLPs use among children. The CPM is being tested in Alaskan rural communities as part of an inprogress eight-year National Institute on Drug Abuse randomized-controlled trial. This paper presents the CPM conceptual framework, describes the model, and highlights community participation, challenges, and lessons learned from implementation of the model over a 21-month period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Reference Number: SLK2902                  Year of Publication: 2012
Authors: Grube, Joel; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon
Keywords: Adolescents, Availability, Physical, Gender, Public Health Policy, Tobacco
Citation: Lipperman-Kreda, S.; Grube, J.W.; and Friend, K.B. "Local tobacco policy and tobacco outlet density: Associations with youth smoking," Journal of Adolescent Health, 50(6):547-552, June 2012. PMCID: PMC3360878
Abstract: PURPOSE: This study investigates the associations between local tobacco policy, tobacco outlet density, and youth smoking. A primary focus is on whether local tobacco policy moderates the relation between outlet density and youth smoking. METHODS: In all, 1,491 youth (51.9% male, mean age = 14.7 years, standard deviation = 1.05) in 50 midsized California cities were surveyed through a computer-assisted telephone interview. Measures of local clean air policy and youth access policy were created based on a review of tobacco policies in these cities. Outlet density was calculated as the number of retail tobacco outlets per 10,000 persons, and city characteristics were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census data. RESULTS: Using multilevel regression analyses and controlling for city characteristics, tobacco outlet density was positively associated with youth smoking. No significant main effects were found for the two tobacco policy types on any of the smoking outcomes after controlling for interactions and covariates. However, statistically significant interactions were found between local clean air policy and tobacco outlet density for ever smoked and past 12-month cigarette smoking. Comparisons of simple slopes indicated that the positive associations between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking behaviors were stronger at the lowest level of local clean air policy compared with the moderate and high levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that tobacco outlet density is related to youth smoking. In addition, local clean air policy may act as a moderator of relationship between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking, such that density is less important at moderate and high levels of this tobacco policy.


Reference Number: RM3001                  Year of Publication: 2012
Authors: Grube, Joel; Moore, Roland
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Availability, Physical, Native Americans, Prevention Strategy
Citation: Moore, R.S.; Roberts, J.; McGaffigan, R.; Calac, D.; Grube, J.W.; Gilder, D.A.; and Ehlers, C.L. "Implementing a reward and reminder underage drinking prevention program in convenience stores near Southern California American Indian reservations," The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 38(5):456-460, 2012. doi: 10.3109/00952990.2012.696758. PMCID: PMC3445436 [Available 2013/9/1]
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Underage drinking is associated with a number of social and public health consequences. Preventing access to alcohol is one approach to reducing underage drinking. OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the efficacy of a culturally tailored "reward and reminder" program aimed at reducing convenience store alcohol sales to youth living on or near nine American Indian reservations. METHODS: First, tribal council proclamations were sought to support underage drinking prevention, including reward and reminder efforts. Then, decoys (volunteers over 21 years of age but judged to look younger) attempted to purchase alcohol without identification. Clerks who asked for identification were given "rewards" (gift cards and congratulatory letters), whereas clerks who did not were given "reminders" of the law regarding sales to minors. Following an initial baseline of 12 purchase attempts, three repeated reward and reminder visits were made to 13 convenience stores selling alcohol within 10 miles of the reservations (n = 51 total attempts). RESULTS: Five of nine tribal councils passed resolutions in support of the program. The baseline sales rate without requesting ID was 33%. Similarly, 38% of stores in the first reward and reminder visit round failed to request identification. However, in the following two reward and reminder rounds, 0% of the stores failed to request identification. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that environmental community-level underage drinking prevention strategies to reduce alcohol sales near rural reservations are feasible and can be effective. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Environmental prevention strategies within reservation communities support integrated supply and demand reduction models for reducing underage drinking


Reference Number: MJP3001                  Year of Publication: 2012
Authors: Grube, Joel; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Alcohol Policy, Availability, Physical, Enforcement
Citation: Paschall, M.J.; Grube, J.W.; Thomas, S.; Cannon, C.; and Treffers, R. "Relationships between local enforcement, alcohol availability, drinking norms, and adolescent alcohol use in 50 California cities," Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73(4):657-665, July 2012. PMCID: PMC3364331
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study investigated relationships between local alcohol policies, enforcement, alcohol outlet density, adult alcohol use, and underage drinking in 50 California cities. METHOD: Eight local alcohol policies (e.g., conditional use permit, social host ordinance, window/billboard advertising) were rated for each city based on their comprehensiveness. Local alcohol enforcement was based on grants received from the California Alcoholic Beverage Control agency for enforcement of underage drinking laws. Outlet density was based on the number of on- and off-premise outlets per roadway mile. Level of adult alcohol use was ascertained from a survey of 8,553 adults and underage drinking (frequency of past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking) from surveys of 1,312 adolescents in 2009 and 2010. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of policies, enforcement, and other community-level variables on adolescent drinking, controlling for youth demographic characteristics. Mediating effects of adolescents' perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, perceived enforcement, and perceived acceptability of alcohol use also were examined. RESULTS: None of the eight local alcohol-policy ratings were associated with adolescent drinking. Funding for underage drinking enforcement activities was inversely related to frequency of past-year alcohol use, whereas outlet density and adult drinking were positively related to both past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking. These relationships were attenuated when controlling for perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, enforcement, and acceptability of alcohol use, providing evidence formediation. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking appear to be influenced by enforcement of underage drinking laws, alcohol outlet density, and adult alcohol use. These community-level influences may be at least partially mediated through adolescents' perceptions of alcohol availability, acceptability of alcohol use, and perceived likelihood of getting in trouble with local police.


Reference Number: CR3001                  Year of Publication: 2012
Authors: Grube, Joel; Russell, Cristel; Russell, Dale
Keywords: Media Studies
Citation: Russell, C.A.; Russell, D.W.; and Grube, J.W. "Substance use and media." In K. Sher (ed.) Oxford Handbook of Substance Use and Dependence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. (in press)


Reference Number: MJP3002                  Year of Publication: 2012
Authors: Grube, Joel; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Alcohol Policy
Citation: Thomas, S.; Paschall, M.J.; Grube, J.W.; Cannon, C.; and Treffers, R. "Underage alcohol policies across 50 California cities: an assessment of best practices," Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 7:26, 2012. doi: 10.1186/1747-597X-7-26 PMCID: PMC3533749
Abstract: Background: We pursue two primary goals in this article: (1) to test a methodology and develop a dataset on U.S. local-level alcohol policy ordinances, and (2) to evaluate the presence, comprehensiveness, and stringency of eight local alcohol policies in 50 diverse California cities in relationship to recommended best practices in both public health literature and governmental recommendations to reduce underage drinking. Methods: Following best practice recommendations from a wide array of authoritative sources, we selected eight local alcohol policy topics (e.g., conditional use permits, responsible beverage service training, social host ordinances, window/billboard advertising ordinances), and determined the presence or absence as well as the stringency (restrictiveness) and comprehensiveness (number of provisions) of each ordinance in each of the 50 cities in 2009. Following the alcohol policy literature, we created scores for each city on each type of ordinance and its associated components. We used these data to evaluate the extent to which recommendations for best practices to reduce underage alcohol use are being followed. Results: (1) Compiling datasets of local-level alcohol policy laws and their comprehensiveness and stringency is achievable, even absent comprehensive, on-line, or other legal research tools. (2) We find that, with some exceptions, most of the 50 cities do not have high scores for presence, comprehensiveness, or stringency across the eight key policies. Critical policies such as responsible beverage service and deemed approved ordinances are uncommon, and, when present, they are generally neither comprehensive nor stringent. Even within policies that have higher adoption rates, central elements are missing across many or most cities’ ordinances. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the viability of original legal data collection in the U.S. pertaining to local ordinances and of creating quantitative scores for each policy type to reflect comprehensiveness and stringency. Analysis of the resulting dataset reveals that, although the 50 cities have taken important steps to improve public health with regard to underage alcohol use and abuse, there is a great deal more that needs to be done to bring these cities into compliance with best practice recommendations.


Reference Number: EB2901                  Year of Publication: 2011
Authors: Bersamin, Melina; Bourdeau, Elisabeth; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Expectancies, Sexual Behavior
Citation: Bourdeau, B.; Grube, J.W.; Bersamin, M.M.; and Fisher, D.A. "The role of beliefs in sexual behavior of adolescents: Development and validation of an adolescent sexual expectancies scale," Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(3):639-648, September 2011. PMCID: PMC3840424
Abstract: This article reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexual Expectancies Scale (ASEXS). Data were obtained from three annual longitudinal surveys of youth aged 10-17 at the first administration (N=932 at Wave 3). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that 4 correlated factors corresponding to Social Risk, Social Benefit, Health Risk, and Pleasure adequately represented the expectancy items. High alpha coefficients and stability across survey waves indicated good internal and test-retest reliability for these factors. Latent variable autoregressive analyses indicated that Social Risk expectancies predicted changes in sexual behavior over the course of the study. Multigroup analyses established that the measurement and predictive models were equivalent for males and females and across age groups. The ASEXS provides researchers with a useful measure for examining adolescents' expectancy beliefs about the consequences of sexual behavior.


Reference Number: HB2501                  Year of Publication: 2011
Authors: Byrnes, Hilary; Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel; Miller, Brenda
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Family Studies
Citation: Byrnes, H.F.; Miller, B.A.; Chen, M.-J.; and Grube, J.W. "The roles of mothers' neighborhood perceptions and specific monitoring strategies in youths' problem behavior," Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(3):347-360, March 2011. PMCID: PMC3377158
Abstract: The neighborhood context can interfere with parents’ abilities to effectively monitor their children, but may be related to specific monitoring strategies in different ways. The present study examines the importance of mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood disorganization for the specific monitoring strategies they use and how each of these strategies are related to youths’ alcohol use and delinquency. The sample consists of 415 mother-child dyads recruited from urban and suburban communities in Western New York state. Youths were between 10 and 16 years of age (56% female), and were mostly Non-Hispanic White and African American (45.3 and 36.5%, respectively). Structural equation modeling shows that mothers who perceive greater neighborhood problems use more rule-setting strategies, but report lower levels of knowledge of their children’s whereabouts. Knowledge of whereabouts is related to less youth alcohol use and delinquency through its association with lowered peer substance use, whereas rule-setting is unrelated to these outcomes. Thus, mothers who perceive greater problems in their neighborhoods use less effective monitoring strategies. Prevention programs could address parental monitoring needs based upon neighborhood differences, tailoring programs for different neighborhoods. Further, parents could be apprised of the limitations of rule-setting, particularly in the absence of monitoring their child’s whereabouts.


Reference Number: SLK2901                  Year of Publication: 2011
Authors: Grube, Joel; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon
Keywords: Adolescents, Public Health Policy, Tobacco, Young Adults
Citation: Friend, K.B.; Lipperman-Kreda, S.; and Grube, J.W. "The impact of local U.S. tobacco policies on youth tobacco use: A critical review," Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 1(2):34-43, 2011. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/OJPM/. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.12006. PMCID: PMC3244049
Abstract: Tobacco use continues to be the leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States, killing over 430,000 people annually. Tobacco initiation and use among youth remains a significant public health concern. Despite declines in U.S. youth tobacco use in recent years, state and national survey results are still cause for alarm. Although traditional school-based curricular programs are the most common strategy to prevent or reduce youth tobacco use, their effectiveness may be limited because young people are immersed in a broader social context in which tobacco is readily available. Environmental strategies change this social context by focusing on policy, enforcement, and media. A compelling body of evidence suggests that interventions at the state and federal levels can, when implemented in combination, reduce youth tobacco use. The impact of policies implemented at the local levels is less well understood and effects of environmental strategies on smokeless tobacco consumption have been largely ignored. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on environmental strategies implemented at the local level on youth use of both cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. We highlight results of the extant literature, hypothesize possible effects where research is lacking, and suggest where future studies might be warranted.


Reference Number: BMF3001                  Year of Publication: 2011
Authors: Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel; Moore, Roland
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Availability
Citation: Jennings, V.K.; Friese, B.; Moore, R.S.; and Grube, J.W. "Doubly illegal: Qualitative accounts of underage alcohol access through theft," Californian Journal of Health Promotion, 9(2):1-5, 2011. PMCID: PMC3269313
Abstract: This study investigated sources of alcohol for underage drinkers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were individually conducted with 47 youths, ages 15-18, who reported drinking within the last 12 months, to explore alcohol access. Theft was one method that some youths reported using to obtain alcohol. In addition to 9% of respondents who reported stealing alcohol from commercial outlets themselves, a total of 26% respondents reported occasions when their close friends stole alcohol. Our findings unveiled that teens had a body of knowledge that some drew upon for stealing alcohol. Youths revealed detailed knowledge about store layout, theft protection devices and store policies. In particular, respondents disclosed knowledge about which aisles have blind spots, how to remove security tops on bottles, and no-chase policies. Theft of alcohol from commercial sources may be reduced by examining the weaknesses of existing theft prevention practices, and revising store policies.


Reference Number: WP2601                  Year of Publication: 2011
Authors: Grube, Joel; Ponicki, William
Keywords: Availability, Physical, Tobacco, Young Adults
Citation: Krevor, B.S.; Ponicki, B.; Grube, J.W.; and DeJong, W. "The effect of mystery shopper reports on age verification for tobacco purchases," Journal of Health Communication, 16(8):820-830, 2011. doi:10.1080/10810730.2011.561912. PMCID: PMC3285291
Abstract: Objective: Mystery Shops (MS) involving attempted tobacco purchases by young legal-age buyers have been employed to monitor chain retail stores’ performance in checking IDs and refusing underage sales. Anecdotal evidence suggests that MS visits with immediate feedback to store personnel can improve age verification. This study investigated the impact of MS reports provided at monthly twice-monthly intervals on age-verification performance. Method: Forty-five Walgreens stores were each visited 20 times at half-month intervals by MS inspectors. The stores were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of 15 stores each: control stores received no feedback, whereas two treatment groups received feedback either every visit (twice monthly) or every second visit (monthly) after the baseline period. A fixed-effects logit regression model was used to test whether each treatment group improved verification rates relative to the control group. Results: Stores receiving monthly MS feedback improved their post-baseline age-verification rates significantly more than did control stores. Stores receiving twice-monthly feedback did not improve significantly more than control stores. Verification rates increased significantly during the study period for all three groups of stores, although the rate of increase was slower for control stores. Conclusions: While post-baseline verification rates were higher in both treatment groups than in the control group, only the group receiving monthly feedback had a significantly greater post-baseline improvement than had control stores. Control stores also improved verification over the course of the study, but at a slower rate than the treatment groups. Communication between managers regarding the MS program may account for the improvements observed in the control stores. This suggests that encouraging exchange of information might extend the benefits of MS programs beyond those stores that actually receive this intervention.


Reference Number: JG2801                  Year of Publication: 2011
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Advertising, Alcohol, Consumption Patterns/Models, Tobacco
Citation: Pechmann, C.; Biglan, A.; Grube, J.W.; and Cody, C. "Transformative consumer research for addressing tobacco and alcohol consumption." In D. Mick; S. Pettigrew; and C. Pechmann (eds.) Transformative Consumer Research for Personal and Collective Well-being, pp. 353-389. New York: Routledge, 2011.


Reference Number: JG2802                  Year of Publication: 2010
Authors: Grube, Joel; Holder, Harold
Keywords: Advertising, Alcohol, Alcohol Policy, Alcohol/Drug Treatment, Availability, Economic, Availability, Physical, Context, Drinking/Drug Use, Drinking and Driving, Enforcement, Epidemiology, Prevention Strategy, Public Health Policy
Citation: Babor, T.; Caetano, R.; Casswell, C.; Edwards, G.; Giesbrecht, N.; Graham, K.; Grube, J.; Hill, L.; Holder, H.; Homel, R.; Österberg, E.; Rehm, J.; Room, R.; and Rossow, I. Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity. Research and Public Policy (revised edition). Oxford: Oxford Press, 2010.


Reference Number: MB2802                  Year of Publication: 2010
Authors: Bersamin, Melina; Bourdeau, Elisabeth; Fisher, Deborah; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Media Studies, Sexual Behavior
Citation: Bersamin, M.M.; Bourdeau, B.; Fisher, D.A.; and Grube, J.W. "Television use, sexual behavior, and relationship status at last oral sex and vaginal intercourse," Sexuality & Culture, 14(2):157-168, June 2010. doi: 10.1007/s12119-010-9066-x. PMCID: PMC2906787
Abstract: The current longitudinal study explores the relationship between adolescent television use at time 1 and sexual experience and relationship status (i.e., committed/romantic versus casual) 1 year later. The sample (N = 824) comprised youth aged 14-18. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting group membership from television exposure variables were conducted controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and prior sexual behavior. Results indicate that sexually inexperienced youth watched more television overall than sexually experienced youth, but less adult, premium and music television on cable networks. Premium cable exposure predicted group membership among sexually active youth. Youth who watched more premium cable at time 1 were more likely to be in casual relationship at last intercourse than a committed one. A more complete understanding of media effects on adolescent sexual relationships can help guide policy development, media education/literacy efforts, and contribute to the design of interventions to reduce the negative consequences associated with adolescent sexual behavior.


Reference Number: MJC2702                  Year of Publication: 2010
Authors: Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel; Gruenewald, Paul
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Availability, Physical, Context, Drinking/Drug Use, Social Networks
Citation: Chen, M.J.; Grube, J.; and Gruenewald, P. "Community alcohol outlet density and underage drinking," Addiction, 105:270-278, 2010. PMCID: PMC2810108
Abstract: Aim. This study examined how community alcohol outlet density may be associated with drinking among youths. Methods. Longitudinal data were collected from 1091 adolescents (aged 14-16 at baseline) recruited from 50 zip codes in California with varying levels of alcohol outlet density and median household income. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine the associations between zip code alcohol outlet density and frequency rates of general alcohol use and excessive drinking, taking into account zip code median household income and individual-level variables (age, gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, mobility, and perceived drinking by parents and peers). Findings. When all other factors were controlled, higher initial levels of drinking and excessive drinking were observed among youths residing in zip codes with higher alcohol outlet densities. Growth in drinking and excessive drinking was on average more rapid in zip codes with lower alcohol outlet densities. The relation of zip code alcohol outlet density with drinking appeared to be mitigated by having friends with access to a car. Conclusion. Alcohol outlet density may play a significant role in initiation of underage drinking during early teen ages, especially when youths have limited mobility. Youth who reside in areas with low alcohol outlet density may overcome geographic constraints through social networks that increase their mobility and the ability to seek alcohol and drinking opportunities beyond the local community.


Reference Number: BMF2802                  Year of Publication: 2010
Authors: Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel; Moore, Roland; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Availability, Consumption Patterns/Models, Drinking Behavior, Native Americans
Citation: Friese, B.; Grube, J.W.; Seninger, S.; Paschall, M.J.; and Moore, R.S. "Drinking behavior and sources of alcohol: Differences between Native American and White youths," Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Other Drugs, 72(1):53-60. PMCID: PMC3001681
Abstract: Objective: We investigated drinking behavior and sources of alcohol among Native American and White youths, as well as how underage drinking behavior and sources of alcohol may be related to environmental factors. Method: Survey data from a sample of 18,916 youths (8th, 10th, and 12th grades) from Montana were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Survey data were supplemented with county-level economic and census data. Results: Native American youths were more likely than White youths to report drinking and heavy episodic drinking and initiate drinking at a younger age. Native Americans were less likely than Whites to get alcohol from home or from someone younger than age 21 but were more likely to get it from other social sources or through theft from a store. Living in a county with more Native Americans was inversely related to access to alcohol for both White and Native American youths, as well as reduced lifetime, 30-day, and heavy episodic drinking. Living in a county with more single-parent households was positively related to lifetime drinking, 30-day drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and increased access to alcohol through someone younger than age 21 or a stranger. Median income was negatively related to lifetime drinking and ease of access to alcohol and was positively related to accessing alcohol from home without permission, theft, or purchase with a fake ID. Conclusions: Because Native American and White youths have different drinking patterns and obtain alcohol from different sources, strategies to prevent alcohol problems in these groups should take these differences into consideration.


Reference Number: SLK2801                  Year of Publication: 2010
Authors: Grube, Joel; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Enforcement, Legal Minimum Drinking Age, Sociocultural Norms
Citation: Lipperman-Kreda, S.; Grube, J.W.; and Paschall, M.J. "Community norms, enforcement of minimum legal drinking age laws, personal beliefs and underage drinking: An explanatory model," Journal of Community Health, 35:249-257, 2010. PMCID: PMC2863071
Abstract: Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible direct and indirect relationships among adolescents’ perception of community alcohol norms, enforcement of underage drinking laws, personal beliefs (perceived parental disapproval of alcohol use, perceived alcohol availability, perceived drinking by peers, perceived harm and personal disapproval of alcohol use), and their past-30-day alcohol use. This study used data from 17,830 middle and high school students who participated in the 2007 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Structural equations modeling indicated that perceived community disapproval of adolescents’ alcohol use was directly and positively related to perceived local police enforcement of underage drinking laws. In addition, adolescents’ personal beliefs appeared to mediate the relationship between perceived enforcement of underage drinking laws and past-30-day alcohol use. Enforcement of underage drinking laws appeared to partially mediate the relationship between perceived community disapproval and personal beliefs related to alcohol use. Results of this study suggests that environmental prevention efforts to reduce underage drinking should target adults’ attitudes and community norms about underage drinking as well as the beliefs of youth themselves.


Reference Number: JG2304                  Year of Publication: 2009
Authors: Bersamin, Melina; Grube, Joel; Walker, Samantha
Keywords: Adolescents, Expectancies, Media Studies, Sexual Behavior
Citation: Fisher, D.A.; Hill, D.L.; Grube, J.W.; Bersamin, M.M.; Walker, S.; and Gruber, E.L. "Televised sexual content and parental mediation: Influences on adolescent sexuality," Media Psychology, 12:121-147, 2009. PMCID: PMC3086268
Abstract: Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, intentions to engage in these behaviors, and sex expectancies. As predicted, exposure to sexual content was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in sexual behaviors, increased intentions to do so in the future, and more positive sex expectancies. In many cases, parental mediation strategies were a significant factor in countering these potential media influences.


Reference Number: JG2601                  Year of Publication: 2009
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Availability, Environmental Approach
Citation: Grube, J.W. "Environmental approaches to preventing adolescent drinking." In L. Scheier (ed.), Handbook of drug use etiology: Theory, methods, and empirical findings (pp. 493-509). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2009.


Reference Number: SLK2702                  Year of Publication: 2009
Authors: Grube, Joel; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Prevention Strategy, School-Based Prevention Programs, Sociocultural Norms, Tobacco
Citation: Lipperman-Kreda, S. and Grube, J.W. "Students' perception of community disapproval, perceived enforcement of school antismoking policies, personal beliefs, and their cigarette smoking behaviors: Results from a structural equation modeling analysis," Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11(5):531-539, 2009. PMCID: PMC2671461
Abstract: School tobacco use policies are often considered as part of a comprehensive approach to preventing or reducing adolescent cigarette smoking. However, little is known about the relationships between such policies and adolescents’ smoking behaviors or the mechanisms by which any such influence may occur. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible direct and indirect relationships among community norms, school anti-smoking policies, adolescents’ personal smoking beliefs, and cigarette smoking behaviors. This study used data from 17,256 middle and high school students who participated in the 2006 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Structural equations modeling indicated that perceived enforcement of school policy was directly and positively related to perceived community norms. In addition, adolescents’ personal beliefs appeared to mediate the relationship between perceived enforcement of school anti-smoking policies and past-30-day cigarette smoking. School policy, in turn, partially mediated the relationship between community norms and smoking beliefs. The results of this study provide a better understanding of how community norms and school anti-smoking policies may affect adolescents’ cigarette smoking.


Reference Number: SLK2703                  Year of Publication: 2009
Authors: Grube, Joel; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, School-Based Prevention Programs, Tobacco
Citation: Lipperman-Kreda, S.; Paschall, M.J.; and Grube, J.W. "Perceived enforcement of school tobacco policy and adolescents’ cigarette smoking," Preventive Medicine, 48:562-566, 2009. PMCID: PMC2629628
Abstract: Objectives: School tobacco use policies are part of a comprehensive strategy for preventing or reducing adolescent cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible relation between perceived tobacco policy enforcement at the school level and smoking behaviors among students. Methods: This study is based on data from 21,281 middle and high school students in 255 schools who participated in the 2006 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted, using a school-level policy enforcement measure based on aggregated student reports, and individual-level characteristics (e.g., age, gender, cigarette smoking before age 12, personal beliefs about smoking) as predictors of past-30-day cigarette smoking behaviors (e.g., any smoking, daily smoking, heavy episodic smoking, smoking on school property). Results: Analysis results indicated that higher levels of perceived enforcement of anti-smoking policy at the school level were inversely associated with the prevalence of all past-30-day smoking behaviors, independent of individual-level predictors. Conclusions: This study suggests that stricter enforcement of school policies against tobacco use may help prevent or reduce adolescents’ cigarette smoking on and outside of school property.


Reference Number: SLK2701                  Year of Publication: 2009
Authors: Grube, Joel; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Enforcement, Prevention Strategy
Citation: Lipperman-Kreda, S.; Paschall, M.J.; and Grube, J.W. "Perceived local enforcement, personal beliefs, and underage drinking: An assessment of moderating and main effects," Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70:64-69, 2009. PMCID: PMC2629628
Abstract: Objective: Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources and deterring its possession and use. However, the processes through which enforcement strategies may affect underage drinking are not well understood. This study examined three possible processes by which perceived enforcement of underage drinking laws and personal beliefs (perceived alcohol availability, perceived harm, and personal disapproval of alcohol use) may influence alcohol use among adolescents. Method: Survey data were obtained from 20,747 adolescents (48.3% males) in 115 school districts who participated in the 2006 Oregon Healthy Teens survey. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine possible interactive and main effects of perceived enforcement and personal beliefs on past-30-day alcohol use. Analyses were adjusted for clustering of observations within school districts and included student demographics and age of alcohol use initiation as covariates. Results: Statistically significant interaction effects on past-30-day alcohol use were found for perceived police enforcement and the three personal beliefs variables, indicating weaker associations between personal beliefs and past-30-day alcohol use at higher levels of perceived enforcement. Main effects of perceived enforcement and personal beliefs variables were also observed in the presence of interaction effects. Conclusions: Evidence for a moderating effect of perceived local enforcement on the relationships between personal beliefs and drinking behaviors suggests that the combination of individually focused prevention programs and local enforcement of underage drinking laws may have the greatest impact on underage drinking.


Reference Number: MJP2601                  Year of Publication: 2009
Authors: Grube, Joel; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, Drug Policy, Drug Use, Evaluation Research
Citation: Paschall, M.J.; Flewelling, R.L.; and Grube, J.W. "Using statewide youth surveys to evaluate local drug use policies and interventions," Contemporary Drug Problems, 36(3/4):427-446, 2009. PMCID: PMC2819722
Abstract: This article summarizes two studies that use statewide school-based youth surveys to evaluate local initiatives to reduce alcohol and other substance abuse. The Vermont "New Directions" evaluation was conducted to assess the effects of a community-based intervention in 23 Vermont communities to reduce youth substance use. Outcome data were obtained from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which is administered to students in grades 8 through 12 every other year in almost all school districts in the state. Based on a quasi-experimental design, results indicated significant declines in cigarette and marijuana use in intervention districts relative to comparison districts during the study period, and led to legislative action to continue funding the initiative. The Oregon "Reducing Youth Access to Alcohol" study is now being conducted in 36 Oregon communities (45 school districts) with a randomized controlled design to evaluate six combined environmental strategies to reduce underage drinking. The strategies include a reward and reminder program and minor decoy operations to reduce commercial alcohol availability, party patrol dispersal and minor in possession arrests to reduce social alcohol availability, traffic emphasis, and media advocacy to increase visibility of policy enforcement activities. The Oregon Healthy Teens Survey has been administered in a large number of Oregon school districts annually since 2000 and is being used to assess intervention effects on alcohol availability, underage drinking and alcohol-related problems such as DUI. These studies illustrate how established statewide youth surveys offer important advantages for evaluating local substance abuse prevention policies and interventions.


Reference Number: MJP2701                  Year of Publication: 2009
Authors: Grube, Joel; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol Policy, Availability, Physical, Consumption Patterns/Models, Public Policy
Citation: Paschall, M.J.; Grube, J.W.; and Kypros, K. "Alcohol control policies and alcohol consumption by youth: A multi-national study," Addiction, 104:1849-1855, 2009. PMCID: PMC2763342
Abstract: Aims:The study examined relationships between alcohol control policies and adolescent alcohol use in 26 countries. Design: Cross-sectional analyses of alcohol policy ratings based on the Alcohol Policy Index (API), per capita consumption, and national adolescent survey data. Setting: Data are from 26 countries. Participants: Adolescents (15-17 years old) who participated in the 2003 ESPAD (European countries) or national secondary school surveys in Spain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the USA. Measurements: Alcohol control policy ratings based on the API; prevalence of alcohol use, heavy drinking, and first drink by age 13 based on national secondary school surveys: per capita alcohol consumption for each country in 2003. Analysis: Correlation and linear regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between alcohol control policy ratings and past-30-day prevalence of adolescent alcohol use, heavy drinking, and having first drink by age 13. Per capita consumption of alcohol was included as a covariate in regression analyses. Findings: More comprehensive API ratings and alcohol availability and advertising control ratings were inversely related to the past-30-day prevalence of alcohol use and prevalence rates for drinking 3-5 times and 6 or more times in the past 30 days. Alcohol advertising control was also inversely related to the prevalence of past-30-day heavy drinking and having first drink by age 13. Most of the relationships between API, alcohol availability and advertising control and drinking prevalence rates were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption in regression analyses, suggesting that alcohol use in the general population may confound or mediate observed relationships between alcohol control policies and youth alcohol consumption. Several of the inverse relationships remained statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption. Conclusions: More comprehensive and stringent alcohol control policies, particularly policies affecting alcohol availability and marketing, are associated with lower prevalence and frequency of adolescent alcohol consumption and age of first alcohol use.


Reference Number: CR2701                  Year of Publication: 2009
Authors: Grube, Joel; Russell, Cristel; Russell, Dale
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Media Studies, Young Adults
Citation: Russell, C.A.; Russell, D.W.; and Grube, J.W. "Nature and impact of alcohol messages in a youth-oriented television series," Journal of Advertising, 38(3):97-112, 2009. PMCID: PMC2991146
Abstract: This research contributes to the extant literature on television influence by pairing a stimulus-side approach documenting how information is presented within a television series with a response-side assessment of whether connectedness and exposure to a series influence the processing of that information differently depending on its format. The inquiry focuses on the nature and impact of messages about alcohol contained within a youth-oriented television program. The findings indicate that the recall and perception of the more overt negative messages increase with exposure and that receptiveness to the subtle and less remembered positive messages increases with levels of program connectedness. Highly connected viewers are both more receptive to and in greater agreement with the underlying positive alcohol message communicated in the series.


Reference Number: MB2601                  Year of Publication: 2008
Authors: Bersamin, Melina; Grube, Joel; Todd, Michael; Walker, Samantha
Keywords: Adolescents, Family Studies, Media Studies, Sexual Behavior
Citation: Bersamin, M.; Todd, M.; Fisher, D.A.; Hill, D.L.; Grube, J.W.; and Walker, S. "Parenting practices and adolescent sexual behavior: A longitudinal study," Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(10):97-112, 2008. PMCID: PMC2742387
Abstract: The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic regressions indicated that adolescents reporting greater parental disapproval and limits on viewing at Wave 1 were less likely to initiate oral sex between Waves 1 and 2. Adolescents who reported more sexual communication with parents were more likely to initiate oral sex. Results for vaginal intercourse were similar to those for oral sex. Coviewing was a significant negative predictor of initiation of sexual behavior. Parental attitudes and television mediation can delay potentially risky adolescent sexual behaviors.


Reference Number: MJC2601                  Year of Publication: 2008
Authors: Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel; Miller, Brenda; Nygaard, Peter
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Drinking and Driving, Family Studies
Citation: Chen, M.-J.; Grube, J.W.; Nygaard, P.; and Miller, B.A. "Identifying social mechanisms for the prevention of adolescent drinking and driving," Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40:576-585, 2008. PMCID: PMC2432526
Abstract: This study identifies social mechanisms that might help prevent youth from being involved in driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD). Data collected through telephone surveys with 1534 adolescents and young adults aged 15-20 years (mean = 17.6, S.D. = 1.6) in California, USA, were analyzed. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that DUI and RWDD were strongly related to drinking in unstructured situations, modeling of DUI by peers and parents, and perceived peer approval or disapproval of DUI. DUI outcome expectancies were indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through situational drinking. Parental monitoring and DUI law enforcement were also indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through DUI expectancies and other mechanisms. The findings, overall, suggest that parental influence remains important even through late adolescence. Parental monitoring, in particular, might help to reduce unstructured socializing with peers, drinking, and affiliation with peers who engage in DUI. Parental monitoring may also foster beliefs about the risks of DUI. Conversely, parents’ own DUI behavior may normalize drinking and DUI behaviors, thus countering monitoring efforts.


Reference Number: BMF2601                  Year of Publication: 2008
Authors: Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Availability, Drinking Behavior, Native Americans
Citation: Friese, B. and Grube, J.W. "Differences in drinking behavior and access to alcohol between Native American and White adolescents," Journal of Drug Education, 38(3):273-284, 2008. PMCID: PMC2759269
Abstract: We investigated differences in drinking behaviors and sources of alcohol among Native American (n=361) and White adolescents (n=1,735), ages 11 to 19. Native American youth were more likely to have consumed alcohol in their lifetime and been intoxicated in the last 30 days than Whites. Native American drinkers were almost twice as likely to have gotten alcohol from an adult and twice as likely to have obtained alcohol from someone under 21. White drinkers were four times as likely to have obtained alcohol from their parents. Youth did not differ in access to alcohol from other social sources. Because youth access alcohol from different social sources, strategies to limit access must consider these differences. This study underscores the importance of examining ethnic-specific alcohol access patterns.


Reference Number: MB2502                  Year of Publication: 2007
Authors: Bersamin, Melina; Grube, Joel; Walker, Samantha
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Sexual Behavior
Citation: Bersamin, M.M.; Fisher, D.A.; Walker, S.; Hill, D.L.; and Grube, J.W. "Defining virginity and abstinence: Adolescents' interpretations of sexual behaviors," Journal of Adolescent Health, 41:182-188, 2007. PMCID: PMC1941649
Abstract: Purpose: The current study examined adolescent conceptualizations of virginity and abstinence and whether differences in adolescent definitions of these terms differed by age, gender, ethnicity, and sexual experience. Methods: A series of logistic regressions were conducted to examine whether gender, age, ethnicity, and sexual experience predicted whether adolescents believed that an individual was still a virgin or abstinent after engaging in genital touching, oral sex, vaginal intercourse, or anal sex. Results: Findings indicated that loss of virginity was linked primarily with vaginal and anal intercourse, while a greater proportion of adolescents attributed a loss of abstinence to other behaviors such as genital touching and oral sex as well. Sexual experience was the strongest predictor of how adolescents defined virginity and abstinence. Conclusions: Significant differences exist in youths’ definitions of abstinence and virginity. This suggests that additional attention is needed to ensure a common understanding of these terms to achieve successful sexual education and prevention programs.


Reference Number: EB2501                  Year of Publication: 2007
Authors: Bersamin, Melina; Bourdeau, Elisabeth; Grube, Joel; Saltz, Robert
Keywords: Alcohol, College Students, Expectancies, Latinos, Sexual Behavior
Citation: Bourdeau, B.; Saltz, R.; Bersamin, M.; and Grube, J. "Understanding the relationship between alcohol and sex: Latino and white college students and problematic sexual experiences while drinking," Journal of American College Health, 56(3):299-306, November-December 2007.
Abstract: Objectives: The authors examined whether the relationship between alcohol expectancies and sexual experiences while drinking differed between Latinos and white college students. Participants: The authors considered students if they were white or Latino, unmarried, ages 18-25 years, reported any drinking, and had at least 1 sexual partner in the present school year. Methods: The investigators collected surveys from a random sample of 13,868 undergraduate students from the 14 California public university campuses. They used tests of group differences and hierarchical multiple regressions. Results: Social-facilitation alcohol expectancies were associated with the total number of different alcohol-related sexual experiences among Latino students. Neither social facilitation nor sexual-enhancement alcohol expectancies were differentially predictive of white or Latino students' frequency of sexual experiences. Conclusions: Additional research is necessary to determine whether concepts targeted by alcohol prevention programs operate in a differential manner for Latino students.


Reference Number: WP2402                  Year of Publication: 2007
Authors: Grube, Joel; Ponicki, William
Keywords: Alcohol Regulation, Availability, Physical, Violence
Citation: Duailibi, S.; Ponicki, W.; Grube, J.; Pinsky, I.; Laranjeira, R.; and Raw, M. "The effect of restricting opening hours on alcohol-related violence," American Journal of Public Health, 97(12):2276-2280, 2007. PMCID: PMC2089093
Abstract: Objective: We investigated whether limiting the hours of alcoholic beverage sales in bars had an effect on homicides and violence against women in the Brazilian city of Diadema. The policy to restrict alcohol sales was introduced in July 2002 and prohibited on-premises alcohol sales after 11pm. Methods: We analyzed data on homicides (1995 to 2005) and violence against women (2000 to 2005) from the Diadema (population 360,000) police archives using log-linear regression analyses. Results: The new restriction on drinking hours led to a decrease of almost 9 murders a month. Assaults against women also decreased but this effect was not significant in models in which we controlled for underlying trends. Conclusions: Introducing restrictions on opening hours resulted in a significant decrease in murders, which confirmed what we know from the literature: restricting access to alcohol can reduce alcohol-related problems. Our results give no support to the converse view, that increasing availability will somehow reduce problems.


Reference Number: JG2301                  Year of Publication: 2007
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Media Studies, Sexual Behavior
Citation: Fisher, D.A.; Hill, D.L.; Grube, J.W.; Gruber, E.L. "Gay, lesbian, and bisexual content on television: A quantitative analysis across two seasons," Journal of Homosexuality, 52(3/4):167-188, 2007. PMCID: PMC2000838
Abstract: Two annual content analyses of programming from the 2001–2002 and 2002–2003 television seasons (n = 1,276 and 1,439 programs, respectively) were conducted to assess the presence of behaviors and verbal messages related to the sexuality of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. Sexual content associated with nonheterosexuals was found in about 15% of programs overall; however, rates of occurrence within episodes were low. Of 14 genres, only movies and variety/comedy shows had substantial percentages of programs that contained nonheterosexual content. Programs on commercial broadcast networks were less likely to have nonheterosexual content than those on cable networks, especially those on premium cable movie networks. Implications of the continued lack of attention to sexual minorities are discussed for both heterosexual and nonheterosexual viewers.


Reference Number: JG2501                  Year of Publication: 2007
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Alcohol Policy, Legal and Regulatory Issues, Traffic Safety
Citation: Grube, J.W. "Alcohol regulation and traffic safety: An overview." In Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Traffic Safety and Alcohol Regulation, A Symposium, June 5-6, 2006, Irvine, California, (Transportation Research Circular E-C123), pp. 13-30: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/circulars/ec123.pdf, November 2007.
Abstract: Broadly defined, alcohol policy includes (a) formal legal and regulatory mechanisms, rules, and procedures for controlling consumption of alcohol or risky drinking behaviors and (b) enforcement of these measures (Grube, 2005; Grube and Nygaard, 2001, 2005; Toomey and Wagenaar, 1999). Such policies can be implemented at the national, state, local, or institutional level. Alcohol policies can focus on restricting access or availability, deterrence, or harm reduction, although the distinction among these approaches is often blurred. A number of policy options seem to be effective in reducing drinking and driving and alcohol-related crashes and fatalities, including price, lower per se blood alcohol contents, random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints, graduated driver licensing, zero tolerance laws, and higher legal drinking ages. Social host liability and dram shop liability appear promising for reducing drinking and drinking-related problems. There is some empirical support for responsible beverage service programs, particularly those that are mandated or motivated by reduction of liability. The evidence is growing for the effects of outlet license restrictions (e.g., outlet density, hours of sale). Evidence that designated driver and safe rides programs are effective strategies for preventing drinking and driving is largely lacking. For many policy strategies there is simply not sufficient research to evaluate their effects. Such research should be conducted to inform policy or at least to evaluate policies as they are implemented.


Reference Number: MJP2502                  Year of Publication: 2007
Authors: Grube, Joel; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Alcohol Regulation, Availability, Availability, Physical, Availability, Social, Legal and Regulatory Issues
Citation: Paschall, M.J.; Grube, J.W.; Black, C.; and Ringwalt, C.L. "Is commercial alcohol availability related to adolescent alcohol sources and alcohol use? Findings from a multi-level study," Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(2):168-174, August 2007. PMCID: PMC2213632
Abstract: Purpose: To examine whether compliance with underage sales laws by licensed retail establishments is related to underage use of commercial and social alcohol sources, perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, and alcohol use. Methods: In 2005, alcohol purchase surveys were conducted at 403 off-premise licensed retail establishments in 43 Oregon school districts. A survey also was administered to 3,332 11th graders in the districts. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between the school district-level alcohol sales rate and students' use of commercial and social alcohol sources, perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, past 30-day alcohol use, and heavy drinking. Results: The school district-level alcohol sales rate was positively related to students' use of commercial alcohol sources and perceived alcohol availability, but was not directly associated with use of social alcohol sources and drinking behaviors. Additional analyses indicated stronger associations between drinking behaviors and use of social alcohol sources relative to other predictors. These analyses also provided support for an indirect association between the school district-level alcohol sales rate and alcohol use behaviors. Conclusions: Compliance with underage alcohol sales laws by licensed retail establishments may affect underage alcohol use indirectly, through its effect on underage use of commercial alcohol sources and perceived ease of obtaining alcohol. However, use of social alcohol sources is more strongly related to underage drinking than use of commercial alcohol sources and perceived ease of obtaining alcohol.


Reference Number: MJP2501                  Year of Publication: 2007
Authors: Grube, Joel; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Alcohol Policy, Availability, Physical
Citation: Paschall, M.J.; Grube, J.W.; Black, C.; Flewelling, R.L.; Ringwalt, C.L.; and Biglan, A. "Alcohol outlet characteristics and alcohol sales to youth: Results of alcohol purchase surveys in 45 Oregon communities," Prevention Science, 8(2):153-159, June 2007. PMCID: PMC1933529
Abstract: Reducing youth access to commercial sources of alcohol is recognized as a necessary component of a comprehensive strategy to reduce underage drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, research on policy-relevant factors that may influence the commercial availability of alcohol to youth is limited. The present study examines characteristics of off-premise alcohol outlets that may affect alcohol sales to youth. Random alcohol purchase surveys (N=385) were conducted in 45 Oregon communities in 2005. Underage-looking decoys who were 21 years old but did not carry IDs were able to purchase alcohol at 34% of the outlets approached. Purchase rates were highest at convenience (38%) and grocery (36%) stores but were relatively low (14%) at other types of outlets (e.g., liquor and drug stores). Alcohol purchases were less likely at stores that were participating in the Oregon Liquor Control Commission’s Responsible Vendor Program (RVP), when salesclerks asked the decoys for their IDs, and at stores with a posted underage alcohol sale warning sign. Alcohol purchases were also inversely related to the number of salesclerks present in a store, but were not related to salesclerks’ age and gender. Findings of this study suggest that more frequent compliance checks by law enforcement agents should target convenience and grocery stores, and owners of off-premise outlets should require training of all salesclerks to ensure reliable checks of young-looking patron IDs, and should post underage alcohol sales warning signs in clear view of patrons.


Reference Number: MJC2302                  Year of Publication: 2006
Authors: Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Media Studies
Citation: Austin, E.W.; Chen, M-J; Grube, J.W. "How does alcohol advertising influence underage drinking? The role of desirability, identification and skepticism," Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(4):376-384, 2006.
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate, using an information processing model, how persuasive media messages for alcohol use lead to concurring beliefs and behaviors among youths. Methods: Data were collected in 2000-2001 using computer-assisted, self-administered interviews with youths ages 9-17 (n=652). Results: Latent variable structural equations models showed that skepticism was negatively associated with positive affect toward alcohol portrayals and positively with the desire to emulate characters portrayed in alcohol advertisements. These, in turn, predicted expectancies and liking of/desire for beer toys and brands, which predicted alcohol use. Parental guidance decreased alcohol use directly and indirectly by lessening influences of positive affect toward advertising. Conclusions: Media alcohol portrayals influence children's drinking through a progressive decision-making process, with its influence underestimated by typical exposure-and-effects analyses.


Reference Number: MB2301                  Year of Publication: 2006
Authors: Bersamin, Melina; Grube, Joel; Walker, Samantha
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Expectancies, Gender, Religion/Spirituality, Sexual Behavior, Sociocultural Norms
Citation: Bersamin, M.M.; Walker, S.; Fisher, D.A.; and Grube, J.W. "Correlates of oral sex and vaginal intercourse in early and middle adolescence," Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16(1):59-68. March 2006. PMCID: PMC1948853
Abstract: This study examined whether a comprehensive set of psychosocial factors was equally predictive of both adolescent vaginal intercourse and oral sex among 1,105 adolescents aged 12-16. Logistic regressions were used to examine the relationships between parental communication, religiosity, bonding to school, heavy drinking, sex expectancies, normative beliefs and both oral sex and vaginal intercourse. Age, gender, bonding to school, heavy drinking, and negative health expectancies predicted both oral sex and vaginal intercourse. Parental communication was associated with vaginal intercourse but not oral sex. Behavior-specific normative-beliefs were differentially associated with oral and vaginal sex.


Reference Number: MJC2401                  Year of Publication: 2006
Authors: Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel; Miller, Brenda; Waiters, Elizabeth
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Drug Use, Social Influence, Violence, Young Adults
Citation: Chen, M.-J.; Miller, B.A.; Grube, J.W.; and Waiters, E.D. "Music, substance use, and aggression," Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(3):373-381, May 2006.
Abstract: Objective: This study investigated whether young people's substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method: Using self-administered questionnaires, data were collected from a sample of community-college students, ages 15-25 years (N = 1,056; 57% female). A structural equation model (maximum likelihood method) was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music and students' alcohol use, illicit-drug use, and aggressive behaviors. Respondents' age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking were included in the analyses as control variables. Results: Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit-drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. In addition, alcohol and illicit-drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables (e.g., sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity) were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusions: The findings suggest that young people's substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Music listening preference, conversely, may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. There is also the possibility that substance use, aggression, and music preference are independent constructs that share common "third factors."


Reference Number: MJC2303                  Year of Publication: 2006
Authors: Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel; Paschall, M.J.
Keywords: College Students, Consumption Patterns/Models, Young Adults
Citation: Chen, M.-J.; Paschall, M.J.; and Grube, J.W. "Motives for malt liquor consumption in a sample of community college students," Addictive Behaviors, 31:1295-1307, 2006.
Abstract: Health and community advocates have raised concerns about consumption of malt liquor, a high alcohol content beverage, among youth. Research on malt liquor use is, however, very limited, leaving unanswered questions about what strategies may effectively prevent this use. This study employed qualitative and quantitative research methods with ethnically diverse college samples to explore and identify motives associated with consumption of malt liquor. Of the motives examined, those representing social facilitation and mood enhancement were the most important predictors of malt liquor use. Anticipation of quick intoxication and economic considerations were also uniquely associated with increased consumption of malt liquor after controlling for other motives and background variables. Coping motives and availability of malt liquor, although being significantly related to malt liquor use in bivariate analyses, were not significantly associated with increased consumption of malt liquor in multivariate analyses. Conformity motives were endorsed by few malt liquor drinkers. Study findings suggest that raising the price and lowering the alcohol content of malt liquor may help reduce consumption of this beverage by young people.


Reference Number: GEA2101                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Drinking Behavior, Sociocultural Norms
Citation: Agostinelli, G. and Grube, J. "Effects of presenting heavy drinking norms on adolescents' prevalence estimates, evaluative judgments, and perceived standards," Prevention Science, 6(2):89-99, 2005.
Abstract: Correcting normative information about the prevalence of heavy drinking is a key element in many prevention programs. To isolate the influence of normative information on older high school students' (n = 230) alcohol-related judgments, the effects of delivering normative information in different contexts (no normative information, normative information only, normative information plus a self-focusing comparison to one's drinking) and under different measurement conditions (public, private) were examined. First, relative to presenting no norms, presenting norms both with and without a self-focus reduced the underestimation of the percent of high school students who never drink heavily. Second, effects on both positive and negative evaluations of heavy drinking were examined independently. Heavy drinking students more strongly endorsed positive evaluations of heavy drinking than did non-heavy drinking students, but this self-serving bias was limited to the normative information only condition. Normative information failed to impact negative evaluations of heavy drinking for students at all drinking levels. Third, in judging the acceptable number of heavy drinking days approved by others, presenting the normative information in both contexts (relative to presenting no norms) led to more conservative judgments. Yet, only the normative context that added a self-focus to the norm led students to adopt more conservative personal standards for the acceptable number of heavy drinking days. Finally, public versus private measurement did not affect any of the dependent variables. The findings are discussed as they relate to confrontational versus empathic styles in delivering interventions.


Reference Number: MB2201                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Bersamin, Melina; Grube, Joel; Waiters, Elizabeth; Walker, Samantha
Keywords: Adolescents, Sexual Behavior
Citation: Bersamin, M.M.; Walker, S.; Waiters, E.D.; Fisher, D.A.; and Grube, J.W. "Promising to wait: Virginity pledges and adolescent sexual behavior," Journal of Adolescent Health, 36:428-436, 2005. PMCID: PMC1949026
Abstract: Purpose: The current study examined the association between formal and non-formal virginity pledges and the initiation of genital play, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse among adolescents. Methods: Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, race, expectancies, academic achievement, contraceptive education, perceived peer pledging behavior, and parental and peer attitudes were conducted to examine the relationship between pledging behavior and genital play, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse. A total of 870 adolescents aged 12-16 from 10 counties in northern and southern California participated in the current study. Results: The findings indicate that making a private pledge or promise to oneself to wait to have sexual intercourse until one is older reduces the likelihood that adolescents will engage in sexual intercourse and oral sex. The effect persists even when controlling for socio-demographic variables. Making a formal pledge did not appear to have an effect on sexual behavior. Conclusions: The findings raise questions about the effectiveness of formal virginity pledges in preventing adolescent sexual behavior. The findings suggest that sexual health programs may be more effective if they encourage young people to make a personal commitment to delay the onset of sex, foster social norms supportive of delaying sex, and raise awareness of how early sexual initiation may threaten future plans.


Reference Number: MJC2201                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Bersamin, Melina; Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel; Waiters, Elizabeth
Keywords: Adolescents, Advertising, Alcohol, Children
Citation: Chen, M.-J.; Grube, J.W.; Bersamin, M.; Waiters, E.; and Keefe, D. "Alcohol advertising: What makes it attractive to youth?," Journal of Health Communication, 10(6):553-565, 2005.
Abstract: This paper investigates the affective responses of youth toward specific elements featured in television alcohol advertisements (i.e., people character, animal character, music, story, and humor). It also examines the associations between advertising likeability and its potential influence. Respondents were 253 children and adolescents in California (47% male; aged 10-17). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires in group settings. Respondents were shown a stimulus tape containing television advertisements for beer and soft drinks. The tape was stopped at the end of each advertisement to allow respondents to answer questions about that advertisement before viewing the next. Perceived likeability of beer advertisements is a function of the positive affective responses evoked by the specific elements featured in the advertisements. Liking of specific elements featured in beer advertisements significantly contributed to the overall likeability of these advertisements and subsequently to advertising effectiveness indicated by purchase intent of product and brand promoted by these advertisements. Advertisements that focus primarily on product qualities or send a message of legal drinking age were rated less favorably and evoked less desire to purchase the product. Implications for countering the effects of alcohol advertising on young people are discussed.


Reference Number: JG2202                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol Policy, Drinking Behavior, Enforcement
Citation: Dent, C.W.; Grube, J.W.; and Biglan, A. "Community level alcohol availability and enforcement of possession laws as predictors of youth drinking," Preventive Medicine, 40:355-362, 2005. PMCID: PMC2002491
Abstract: Background. Despite a minimum legal drinking age, many young people use alcohol. Environmental strategies to control youth drinking focus on restricting access and the enforcement of possession laws. This study examines the relationship between use of these strategies and the frequency of youth alcohol use and related problems. Methods. Participants were 16,694 students, ages 16-17 in 92 communities in Oregon. A multi-level analysis of a repeated cross-sectional statewide student survey was conducted. The outcome measures examined include 30-day frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, use of alcohol at school, and drinking and driving. Results. The rate of illegal merchant sales in the communities directly related to all four alcohol-use outcomes. There was also evidence that communities with higher minor in possession law enforcement had lower rates of alcohol use and binge drinking. The use of various sources in a community expanded and contracted somewhat depending on levels of access and enforcement. Conclusions. This evidence provides empirical support for the potential utility of local efforts to maintain or increase alcohol access control and possession enforcement.


Reference Number: JG2302                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Alcohol Policy, Public Health Policy
Citation: Grube, J. "Preventing alcohol-related problems: Public policy strategies." In Tranportation Research Board of the National Academies Implementing Impaired Driving Countermeasures: Putting Research into Action, A Symposium, August 21-23, 2003, Irvine, California (Transportation Research Circular E-C072), pp. 97-126: http://trb.org/publications/circulars/ec072.pdf, 2005.


Reference Number: JG1903                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Cross-Cultural Studies, Drinking Behavior, Young Adults
Citation: Grube, J.W. "Youth drinking rates and problems: A comparison of European countries and the United States" (updated for 2003 ESPAD and 2003 MTF surveys). Calverton, MD: Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Office of Juvenile Justice Enforcing the Underage Drinking Laws Program, May, 2005.


Reference Number: JG2101                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Grube, Joel; Nygaard, Peter
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol Policy, Legal and Regulatory Issues
Citation: Grube, J.W. and Nygaard, P. "Alcohol policy and youth drinking: Overview of effective interventions for young people." In T. Stockwell, P.J. Gruenewald, J.W. Toumbourou, and W. Loxley (eds.) Preventing Harmful Substance Use: The Evidence Base for Policy and Practice, pp. 113-127. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2005.
Abstract: Alcohol policy refers to (1) formal legal and regulatory mechanisms, rules and procedures for reducing the consumption of alcohol or risky drinking behaviors; and (2) enforcement of these measures. Policy approaches to preventing and reducing drinking and drinking problems among youth have traditionally focused on limiting access to alcohol or on direct deterrence of young drinkers or those who supply alcohol to them. The aim of such policies is to increase the "full price" of alcohol to young people by increasing resources necessary for them to obtain it or the potential costs for possessing or consuming it. More recently, policies have begun to focus on harm reduction. Harm reduction policies attempt to prevent or reduce alcohol problems by targeting heavy drinking, drinking in risky situations, or by moderating the relationship between drinking and problem outcomes, without necessarily affecting overall consumption. Based on the available evidence, the most effective policies appear to be (1) taxation or price increases; (2) increases in the minimum drinking age; (3) zero tolerance; and (4) graduated licensing. Random breath testing, sobriety check points, and dram shop liability appear promising for reducing drinking and drinking problems based on studies with the general population, although there is less evidence for their effectiveness specifically with young people. The evidence is growing for the effects of license restrictions (e.g., limiting outlet density or hours of sale). There is some support for responsible beverage service programs, particularly those that are mandated or motivated by reduction of liability. The evidence on advertising restrictions is conflicting. Evidence that designated driver and safe rides programs, warning labels, social host liability, and keg registration are effective strategies for preventing drinking or drinking problems among young people is lacking. Overall, there is insufficient research to evaluate the effects of many alcohol policies on alcohol consumption or problems among young people. Such research should be conducted to inform policy and evaluate policies as they are implemented. Finally, it is clear from the available research that policies cannot be effective unless accompanied by enforcement and by awareness on the part of the intended targets of the policy and enforcement efforts.


Reference Number: JG2303                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Grube, Joel; Waiters, Elizabeth
Keywords: Adolescents, Advertising, Alcohol, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Children, Drinking Behavior, Media Studies
Citation: Grube, J.W. and Waiters, E. "Alcohol in the media: Content and effects on drinking beliefs and behaviors among youth," Adolescent Medicine Clinics, 16:327-343, 2005.
Abstract: Television, radio, film, and popular music often are identified as potential sources through which young people may learn about alcohol and as potential influences on young people's drinking and drinking problems [1-4]. The effects of alcohol portrayals and advertising on young people [2,3] and targeting of youth [5-7] by advertisers are particularly salient issues. Recent expansion of alcohol advertising, such as the decision by distillers to end their self-imposed ban and to begin promoting spirits on television, has raised further concerns [8].


Reference Number: JG2204                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Drugs, Illicit, Media Studies, Tobacco
Citation: Gruber, E.L.; Thau, H.M.; Hill, D.L.; Fisher, D.A.; and Grube, J.W. "Alcohol, tobacco and illicit substances in music videos: A content analysis of prevalence and genre," Journal of Adolescent Health, 37:81-83, 2005.
Abstract: Content analyses examined mention of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances in music videos (n = 359) broadcast in 2001, as well as genre and presence of humor. Findings indicated that references to illicit substances were more prevalent than tobacco in music videos. Humor was 2.5 times as likely to appear in videos containing references to substances than those without substances.


Reference Number: PN2201                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Grube, Joel; Nygaard, Peter
Keywords: Adolescents, Drinking and Driving, Enforcement
Citation: Nygaard, P. and Grube, J.W. "Mixed messages: Contributions to adolescent drinking and driving," Addiction Research and Theory, 13(5):411-426, October 2005.
Abstract: This qualitative study focused on the discrepancies in messages concerning alcohol use presented by adults to young people. The purpose was to investigate how these discrepancies might impact adolescents' drinking, and drinking and driving behavior. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 44 adolescents who in a previous survey had admitted having been involved in drinking and driving, riding with a drunk driver, or both. The analysis of the interviews focused on the discrepancies between messages presented by adult authorities and the respondents' experience of actual behavior from these authorities. The findings indicate that there are serious problems in the communication between adult authorities and adolescents. Parents, schools, and police are not consistent and persistent in their communication with adolescents concerning alcohol and drinking and driving. This inconsistency seems to prevent teenagers from understanding the extent of the problem of drinking and driving. Implications for research and prevention are discussed.


Reference Number: SW2301                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Bersamin, Melina; Grube, Joel; Martin, Scott; Walker, Samantha
Keywords: Adolescents, Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Sexual Behavior
Citation: Walker, S.; Bersamin, M.M.; Fisher, D.A.; Hill, D.L.; Martin, S.E.; Grube, J.W.; and Gruber, E.L. "A descriptive study of lifetime prevalence of coital and noncoital sexual activity among adolescents." Berkeley, CA: Prevention Research Center, June 2005.
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of a range of coital and non-coital sexual behaviors among adolescents and to examine age, gender, and ethnic differences in these behaviors. In addition, age of initiation was explored for high risk sexual activities (oral sex, and vaginal and anal intercourse). Methods: Analyses were conducted using data from Wave 1 of a list-assisted computer administered longitudinal survey obtained from the San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles areas in California (N = 1105; males = 48.2%). Participants ranged in age from 12 to 16 years of age (M = 14.1, SD =1.42). Results: Logistic regression showed that older adolescents were more likely to engage in all of the low risk (e.g., kissing, fondling) and high risk (e.g., oral sex, vaginal intercourse) sexual behaviors than younger adolescents. Although gender was not predictive of the prevalence of any of the low or high risk sexual behaviors, males reported engaging in oral sex and sexual intercourse at a significantly earlier age than females. African Americans were more likely to engage in anal intercourse than Caucasians. Latino and other/multi-ethnic adolescents reported engaging in oral sex for the first time at significantly younger ages than Caucasian youth. The results also showed that some virgins engaged in low risk sexual behaviors as well as oral sex and anal intercourse. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that early adolescents may benefit from prevention programs aimed at developing risk prevention skills as they transition into a developmental stage where sexual behavior is more prevalent. A second implication of this study is the need for prevention strategies that encompass both coital and non-coital behaviors.


Reference Number: SW2302                  Year of Publication: 2005
Authors: Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel; Waiters, Elizabeth; Walker, Samantha
Keywords: Adolescents, African American, Asian Americans, Consumption Patterns/Models, Drinking and Driving, Gender, Latinos, Race/Ethnicity, Young Adults
Citation: Walker, S.; Waiters, E.; Grube, J.W.; and Chen, M.-J. "Young people driving after drinking and riding with drinking drivers: Drinking locations - what do they tell us?" Traffic Injury Prevention, 6(3), 212-218, September 2005.
Abstract: Objective: The present study investigated the extent to which drinking in specific locations and heavy drinking mediated the effects of overall alcohol use on driving after drinking (DD) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) among young people. Additionally, this study examined the relationships among ethnicity, gender, drinking in specific locations, and DD and RWDD. Method: Using random-digit dialing procedures, participants were recruited to take part in a telephone survey in California, United States of America. Participants were 1,534 youth, ages 15-20 years (mean age = 17.6). Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Americans were over-sampled to allow cross-group comparisons. Along with background characteristics, overall alcohol use, heavy drinking, drinking in specific locations, DD, and RWDD were measured. Results: Latent variable structural equation modeling showed that European Americans, males, older adolescents, those who have a driver license, and those who drive more often were more likely to report drinking alcohol in the past year. Heavy episodic drinking and drinking in cars increased both DD and RWDD. Drinking in restaurants also increased DD. The effects of overall alcohol consumption on DD were entirely mediated through heavy episodic drinking and drinking in restaurants and cars. Alcohol consumption had both direct and indirect effects on RWDD. With the exception of being Latino and frequency of driving, the effects of the background variables on RWDD were all entirely mediated through alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Heavy drinking and drinking in specific locations appeared to be important unique predictors of both DD and RWDD. In light of the relationship between drinking in restaurants and in cars, and DD, prevention programs and policies aimed at underage drinking should focus on developing more effective responsible beverage service programs, increasing compliance with laws limiting alcohol sales to youth, and enforcing graduated driver licensing and zero tolerance laws.


Reference Number: GEA1801                  Year of Publication: 2004
Authors: Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Alcohol Problem Recognition, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, College Students, Drinking Behavior, Sociocultural Norms
Citation: Agostinelli, G.; Floyd, T.E.; Grube, J.W.; Woodall, G.; and Miller, J.H. "Alcohol problem recognition as a function of own and others' perceived drinking," Addictive Behaviors, 29:143-157, 2004.
Abstract: A self-regulation model was applied for predicting alcohol problem recognition. With the rate of others' alcohol use serving as a standard, problem recognition was predicted to increase the more one perceived one's drinking rate to be above others' use. Within the context of a classroom-administered survey, 707 nonabstaining undergraduates reported their drinking rates and estimated other students' drinking rates for annual drinking frequency, average weekly drinking quantity, and recent heavy drinking frequency. The independent roles of one's own and others' drinking rates, as well as the discrepancy between these two rates in predicting problem recognition, were examined. Findings were consistent with a self-regulation account. Across measures, only own drinking rate independently predicted problem recognition. Others' drinking rate interacted with own drinking rate in predicting problem recognition on the quantity measure. Specifically, the more heavy drinkers perceived their own quantity to be above others', the higher their problem recognition. Finally, gender effects were observed. Although men reported higher problem recognition than women, women reflected more on their drinking rates for problem recognition.


Reference Number: JG2203                  Year of Publication: 2004
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Data Collection Instruments, Young Adults
Citation: Faden, V.B.; Day, N.L.; Windle, M.; Windle, R.; Grube, J.W.; Molina, B.S.G.; Pelham Jr., W.E.; Gnagy, E.M.; Wilson, T.K.; Jackson, K.M.; and Sher, K.J. "Collecting longitudinal data through childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood: Methodological challenges," Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(2):330-340, February 2004. PMCID: PMC2898727
Abstract: This article presents the proceedings of a workshop at the 2003 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The organizers and chairs were Vivian Faden and Nancy Day. The presentations were (1) Lessons Learned from the Lives Across Time Longitudinal Study, by Michael Windle and Rebecca Windle; (2) Methodological Issues in Longitudinal Surveys With Children and Adolescents, by Joel Grube; (3) The Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study: Methodological and Conceptual Challenges, by Brooke Molina, William Pelham, Elizabeth Gnagy, and Tracy Wilson; and (4) Lessons Learned in Conducting Longitudinal Research on Alcohol Involvement: If Only I Had Known Before Hand! by Kristina Jackson and Kenneth Sher.


Reference Number: JG2701                  Year of Publication: 2004
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Media Studies
Citation: Fisher, D.A.; Hill, D.L.; Grube, J.W.; and Gruber, E.L. "Sex on American television: An analysis across program genres and network types," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(4):529-553, 2004.
Abstract: As part of a larger study on television exposure, 1,276 shows from the 2001-2002 television season were coded for sexual content. Compared to previous research, this study sampled more networks targeted to adolescents and examined differences across additional program genres. A unique feature is the assessment of sexual content across network types. Three genres were distinguished by high percentages of shows with sexual behavior and talk and greater explicitness. This pattern characterized premium cable movie channels compared to broadcast and other cable networks. Few genres consistently offer programming that is free of sexual content during peak times for teen viewing.


Reference Number: JG2201                  Year of Publication: 2004
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Media Studies, Sexual Behavior
Citation: Fisher, D.A.; Hill, D.L.; Grube, J.W.; and Gruber, E.L. "Sex on American televison: An analysis across program genres and network types," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(4):529-553, 2004.
Abstract: As part of a larger study on television exposure, 1,276 shows from the 2001-2002 television season were coded for sexual content. Compared to previous research, this study sampled more networks targeted to adolescents and examined differences across additional program genres. A unique feature is the assessment of sexual content across network types. Three genres were distinguished by high percentages of shows with sexual behavior and talk and greater explicitness. This pattern characterized premium cable movie channels compared to broadcast and other cable networks. Few genres consistently offer programming that is free of sexual content during peak times for teen viewing.


Reference Number: JG2205                  Year of Publication: 2004
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Advertising, Consumption Patterns/Models, Media Studies
Citation: Grube, J.W. "Alcohol in the media: Drinking portrayals, alcohol advertising, and alcohol consumption among youth." In National Research Council and Institute of Medicine Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility, Background Papers, pp. 597-624 [CD-ROM]. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2004.


Reference Number: JG2206                  Year of Publication: 2004
Authors: Grube, Joel; Stewart, Kathryn
Keywords: Alcohol Policy, Availability, Economic, Availability, Physical, Availability, Social, Drinking and Driving
Citation: Grube, J.W. and Stewart, K. "Preventing impaired driving using alcohol policy," Traffic Injury Prevention, 5(3):199-207, September 2004.
Abstract: Considerable progress has been made in the reduction of impaired driving crashes during the last two decades. Much of this progress is attributable to strengthening laws against impaired driving along with vigorous enforcement efforts aimed at deterring impaired driving. In addition, many useful strategies can also be applied that focus on the control of alcohol availability, use, and promotion. Alcohol policies include controls on the price of alcohol, the location, density, and opening hours of sales outlets, controls on the social availability of alcohol, and on the promotion and advertising of alcohol. Enforcement of these policies is an important aspect of their effectiveness. These strategies have been shown to be effective or promising in reducing impaired driving as well as other consequences related to alcohol use and misuse.


Reference Number: JG1904                  Year of Publication: 2004
Authors: Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Cross-Cultural Studies, Expectancies, Gender
Citation: Grube, J.W.; Chen, M.-J.; and Morgan, M. "Alcohol expectancies: A cross-national comparison of Irish and American adolescents." Berkeley, CA: Prevention Research Center, 2004.
Abstract: Aims: The primary purposes of this study were to determine if Irish and American adolescents differ in (a) their alcohol expectancies, (b) the structures underlying alcohol expectancies, and (c) the extent to which alcohol expectancies predict drinking. The study further investigated whether cross-national differences in drinking patterns are mediated by differences in alcohol expectancies. Gender differences in alcohol expectancies were explored also. Design: Data were obtained from 1,702 post-primary students in Dublin, Ireland and 1,928 high school students in the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States using confidential self-administered questionnaires given in the school setting. Findings: Relative to Americans, Irish adolescents believed negative consequences of drinking were less likely and positive consequences were more likely. Overall, young women believed that a number of positive and negative consequences were more likely than did young men. Nonetheless, the structure underlying alcohol expectancies was similar across nationality and gender groups, comprising two relatively uncorrelated dimensions corresponding to positive and negative consequences. Regression analyses showed that positive and negative expectancy scores were significant predictors of drinking and substantially reduced the effects of nationality. Moreover, the relationship between drinking and alcohol expectancies was essentially the same across nationality and gender groups. Conclusions: There are differences in beliefs about the likelihood of specific drinking consequences between young people from Ireland and the U.S. These differences may account for some cross-national differences in adolescent alcohol consumption. Even so, alcohol expectancies appear to predict drinking similarly regardless of nationality or gender.


Reference Number: GEA1802                  Year of Publication: 2003
Authors: Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Advertising, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Media Studies, Tobacco
Citation: Agostinelli, G. and Grube, J.W. "Tobacco counter-advertising: A review of the literature and a conceptual model for understanding effects," Journal of Health Communication, 8:107-127, 2003.
Abstract: The tobacco counter-advertising literature is reviewed as it relates to basic process questions concerning what makes counter-advertisements effective. Limitations in addressing (a) counter-advertisement content and the psychological mediators targeted, (b) counter-advertisement style and the affective reactions targeted, (c) prior smoking experience, and (d) other audience factors are enumerated. A theoretical model based on alcohol advertising research is presented to address those limitations. The model addresses the practical research question of predicting when tobacco counter-advertising will work by examining the independent influence of each of these enumerated factors, as well as how these factors operate in concert, qualifying each other. The model also addresses the process question of explaining how counter-advertising works by identifying affective and cognitive processes as mediators. By understanding the processes that underlie the qualified findings, one can better advise the designers of tobacco counter-advertisements how to be more effective.


Reference Number: GEA1901                  Year of Publication: 2003
Authors: Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Cross-Cultural Studies, Gender
Citation: Agostinelli, G.; Grube, J.W.; and Morgan, M. "Social distancing in adolescents' perceptions of alcohol use and social disapproval: The moderating roles of culture and gender," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(11):2354-2372, 2003.
Abstract: College students attribute more conservative attitudes and behaviors concerning alcohol use to themselves and progressively less conservative attitudes and behaviors to their friends and more distal peers. We examined whether a similar social-distancing effect would occur with adolescents in America and Ireland. Students (n = 2,554) attributed the most conservative drinking frequency to themselves and progressively less conservative frequencies to their best friends, other good friends, other students their age at their own school, and other students their age at other schools, respectively. Similarly, adolescents attributed more disapproval of drinking to their best friends and progressively less conservative disapproval to other good friends, other students their age at their own school, and other students their age at other schools, respectively. As predicted, more social distancing occurred among Americans (relative to Irish) and girls (relative to boys).


Reference Number: HH2103                  Year of Publication: 2003
Authors: Grube, Joel; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold
Keywords:
Citation: Babor, T.; Caetano, R.; Casswell, S.; Edwards, G.; Giesbrecht, N.; Graham, K.; Grube, J.; Gruenewald, P.; Hill, L.; Holder, H.; Homel, R.; Österberg, E.; Rehm, J.; Room, R.; and Rossow, I. Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity: Research and Public Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.


Reference Number: JG2102                  Year of Publication: 2003
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Alcohol Policy, Prevention Strategy
Citation: Giesbrecht, N. and Grube, J.W. "Education and persuasion strategies." In T. Babor, R. Caetano, S. Casswell, G. Edwards, N. Giesbrecht, K. Graham, J. Grube, P. Gruenewald, L. Hill, H. Holder, R. Homel, E. and Österberg, J. Rehm, R. Room, and I. Rossow (eds.) Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity: Research and Public Policy, pp. 189-207. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Abstract: Education and persuasion strategies are among the most popular approaches to the prevention of alcohol-related problems. In this chapter, these strategies are examined in several contexts and settings, including schools, colleges, and communities. Both individual- and population-level orientations are evident in these strategies, which have the following objectives: 1) changing knowledge about alcohol and risks related to drinking, 2) changing attitudes with regard to drinking in order to lower risks, 3) changing drinking behaviour itself, 4) lowering the frequency or seriousness of problems related to drinking, 5) increasing resources and support for alcohol policies. As with other chapters in this book, the goal is to derive policy-relevant conclusions from an objective review of the research evidence. However, this chapter differs from the others in that the research leads to rather negative conclusions. These conclusions were also made in an earlier review (Edwards et al. 1994). Updating the evidence only confirms earlier findings. For the most part, the behavioural objectives listed above have not been realized. Nevertheless, it is important to examine the available research in order to understand the relative ineffectiveness of education and persuasion strategies, and to see how they compare with other evidence-based policy choices.


Reference Number: JG1603                  Year of Publication: 2003
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Mathematical Modeling, Suicide
Citation: Light, J.M.; Grube, J.W.; Madden, P.A.; and Gover, J. "Adolescent alcohol use and suicidal ideation: A nonrecursive model," Addictive Behaviors, 28:705-724, 2003.
Abstract: Prior research has found that adolescent alcohol use is correlated with suicide ideation and behaviors. The causal nature of this relationship, however, has not been established. It could result from a significant causal effect in either direction, both directions, or joint influence from some third factor. These possibilities were addressed using data from a two-wave (24-month) panel survey of junior and senior high school students aged 12 or older at Wave 1. A total of 615 students (301 males, 314 females) completed both waves. Alcohol Problems were related to suicide ideation and behavior cross-sectionally within Waves 1 and 2. Separate Full-Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) models were estimated for males and females using the same set of identifying restrictions. Results suggested that suicidality leads to increased alcohol-related problems for females, while alcohol-related problems are predictive of suicidality among males. Sensitivity and spuriousness tests did not appreciably alter this conclusion.


Reference Number: PN1901                  Year of Publication: 2003
Authors: Grube, Joel; Nygaard, Peter; Waiters, Elizabeth
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Drinking and Driving, Ethnographic/Qualitative Studies, Expectancies, Sociocultural Norms
Citation: Nygaard, P.; Waiters, E.D.; Grube, J.W.; and Keefe, D. "Why do they do it? A qualitative study of adolescent drinking and driving," Substance Use & Misuse, 38(7):835-863, 2003.
Abstract: Despite a decline in the prevalence of fatal traffic crashes involving adolescent drinking drivers in recent years, underage drinking and driving (DD) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) remain serious problems. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study investigating the influence of beliefs and expectancies on adolescents' decisions to participate in DD or RWDD. Forty-four adolescents, who in a previous survey admitted to having been involved in either DD or RWDD, were interviewed in 2000 about their experiences concerning either driving after drinking or getting into a car with a driver who had been drinking. Findings indicate that adolescent DD and RWDD are complex behaviors. Expectancies and control beliefs do not seem to influence the decision, whereas normative beliefs to some extent do. However, findings also indicate that increased enforcement of the laws may be helpful in preventing young people from getting involved in drinking and driving.


Reference Number: AT1901                  Year of Publication: 2003
Authors: Grube, Joel; Martin, Scott; Treno, Andrew
Keywords: Adolescents, Availability, Physical, Drinking and Driving, Traffic Safety
Citation: Treno, A.J.; Grube, J.W.; and Martin, S.E. "Alcohol availability as a predictor of youth drinking and driving: A hierarchical analysis of survey and archival data," Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 27(5):835-840, May 2003.
Abstract: Background: Much attention has recently been directed toward developing preventive interventions to reduce drinking and driving through efforts to limit the numbers and locations of alcohol outlets at the community level. Although evaluations of these efforts have suggested linkages between alcohol outlets and problem outcomes, they have not addressed the linkage between outlets and drinking and driving among youth. The analysis reported here investigates the relationship between alcohol outlet densities and under-age drinking and driving as self-reported on two telephone surveys conducted in California. Methods: These analyses were based on data obtained from two telephone surveys conducted by the Prevention Research Center and archival data collected by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control and the US Census Bureau. The sample for the first survey consisted of 15- to 20-year-old adolescents and young adults contacted by telephone, using a random digit dialing of exchanges in the greater San Francisco Bay Area. A second set of survey data was similarly collected by a random sample of households throughout California, and the Bay Area subset was also used for this analysis. Results: At the individual level, older respondents were more likely to report drinking and driving and riding with drinking drivers, whereas females and Asians were less so. At the aggregate or city-level, alcohol outlet density, as measured by the number of on- and off-premise establishments licensed to sell alcohol, was associated with both drinking and driving and riding with drinking drivers. These effects were moderated by a number of individual level effects, with younger respondents and females more likely to be affected by outlet densities. Conclusions: The findings here provide support for the implementation of policies targeting alcohol outlet density reductions. Areas with large numbers of such outlets provide ample opportunities to youth for alcohol purchases.


Reference Number: SW2001                  Year of Publication: 2003
Authors: Grube, Joel; Treno, Andrew; Walker, Samantha
Keywords: Adolescents, Drinking and Driving, Race/Ethnicity
Citation: Walker, S.; Treno, A.J.; Grube, J.W.; and Light, J.M. "Ethnic differences in driving after drinking and riding with drinking drivers among adolescents," Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 27(8):1299-1304, August 2003.
Abstract: Background: This study examined the relationship between ethnicity and driving after drinking (DD) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) while controlling for drinking patterns, driving practices, and background demographic characteristics including age and gender. Methods: Using random-digit dialing procedures, 1,534 young adults ranging from 15- to 20-years of age (mean = 17.6) living in California were recruited to participate in a telephone survey. Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Americans were oversampled to allow cross-group comparisons. Results: Rates of DD were lower for females than for males and were also lower for African Americans and Asian Americans than for whites. However, after we controlled for drinking patterns and driving practices, the results showed Latinos at greater risk for DD than white adolescents. Compared with whites and males, Asian American and female adolescents were less likely to report RWDD. When drinking patterns and driving practices were taken into account, Latino adolescents were nearly twice as more likely to ride with drinking drivers than whites. Conclusions: These findings indicate a greater need for directing prevention efforts to target Latino youth and youth at risk. Moreover, research aimed at elucidating the social and environmental factors involved in the low prevalence rates of DD and RWDD among Asian American youth may indicate possible protective factors to DD and RWDD operating within the Asian American community.


Reference Number: GEA1902                  Year of Publication: 2002
Authors: Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Advertising, Media Studies
Citation: Agostinelli, G. and Grube, J.W. "Alcohol counter-advertising and the media: A review of recent research," Alcohol Research & Health, 26(1):15-21, 2002.
Abstract: Counter-advertising commonly is used to balance the effects that alcohol advertising may have on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Such measures can take the form of print or broadcast advertisements (e.g., public service announcements [PSAs]) as well as product warning labels. The effectiveness of both types of counter-advertising is reviewed using the Elaboration Likelihood Model as a theoretical framework. For print and broadcast counter-advertisements, such factors as their emotional appeal and the credibility of the source, as well as audience factors, can influence their effectiveness. Further, brewer-sponsored counter-advertisements are evaluated and received differently than are the more conventional PSA counter-advertisements. For warning labels, both the content and design of the label influence their effectiveness, as do audience factors. The effectiveness of those labels is evaluated in terms of the extent to which they impact cognitive and affective processes as well as drinking behavior.


Reference Number: JG2002                  Year of Publication: 2002
Authors: Delaney, William; Grube, Joel; Ragland, David
Keywords: Occupational/Workplace Studies, Stress
Citation: Delaney, W.P.; Grube, J.W.; Greiner, B.; Fisher, J.M.; and Ragland, D.R. "Job stress, unwinding, and drinking in transit operators," Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63(4):420-429, July 2002.
Abstract: Objective: This study tests the spillover model of the effects of work stress on after-work drinking, using the variable "length of time to unwind" as a mediator. Method: A total of 1,974 transit operators were contacted and 1,553 (79%) of them participated in a personal interview. Complete data on the variables in this analysis were available for 1,208 respondents (84% men). Using latent variable structural equation modeling, a model was tested that predicted that daily job problems, skipped meals and less social support from supervisor would increase alcohol consumption through the mediator, length of time to unwind and relax after work. Increased alcohol consumption was, in turn, hypothesized to increase drinking problems. Results: As predicted, skipped meals and daily job problems increased length of time to unwind and had an indirect positive relationship with overall drinking, even when controlling for drinking norms and demographic variables. Overall drinking was positively associated with drinking problems. Supervisor support at work, however, did not significantly influence length of time to unwind. Difficulty unwinding (longer time to unwind) did not have direct effects on drinking problems; however, indirect effects through overall drinking were observed. Conclusions: These results provide preliminary support for the mediating role of length of time to unwind and relax after work in a spillover model of the stress-drinking relationship. This research introduces a new mediator and empirical links between job problems, length of time to unwind, drinking and drinking problems, which ground more substantively the domains of work stress and alcohol consumption.


Reference Number: JG2001                  Year of Publication: 2002
Authors: Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Advertising, Children, Drinking Behavior, Media Studies
Citation: Martin, S.E.; Snyder, L.B.; Hamilton, M.; Fleming-Milici, F.; Slater, M.D.; Stacy, A.; Chen, M.-J.; Grube, J.W. "Alcohol advertising and youth," Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26(6):900-906, June 2002.
Abstract: This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.


Reference Number: KS2001                  Year of Publication: 2002
Authors: Grube, Joel; Stewart, Kathryn
Keywords: Alcohol Policy, Consumption Patterns/Models, Prevention Strategy
Citation: Stewart, K.; Grube, J.W.; and Reynolds, R. "Drinking in the United States: Myths, realities, and prevention policy." In D.R. Mayhew and C. Dussault (eds.) Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, Montreal, Canada, August 4-9, 2002, pp. 729-733. Quebec, Canada: Société de l'assurance automobile du Quebec, 2002.
Abstract: There is a widespread perception that alcohol is an integral part of American life and a normal accompaniment to most social events. It is often assumed that most Americans drink on a regular basis. These perceptions are not entirely true, but have a major influence on our attitudes towards alcohol and our policies regarding the sale and consumption of alcohol. These attitudes and policies, in turn, affect the incidence impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes. This paper will provide a more accurate picture of drinking in the United States.


Reference Number: JG1901                  Year of Publication: 2001
Authors: Grube, Joel; Nygaard, Peter
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol Policy
Citation: Grube, J.W. and Nygaard, P. "Adolescent drinking and alcohol policy," Contemporary Drug Problems, 28(1):87-131, Spring 2001.
Abstract: Policy approaches to prevention have considerable promise for addressing underage drinking and its associated problems. Based on the available evidence, the most effective policies appear to be (a) taxation or price increases, (b) increases in the minimum drinking age, and (c) graduated licensing or zero tolerance. Random breath testing and sobriety checkpoints also appear promising, although there is little evidence for their effectiveness specifically with young people. Major changes in the conditions of sale (e.g., privatization) may also affect the availability of alcohol to young people and thus underage drinking. The evidence is less convincing, however, for the effects of more modest license restrictions (e.g., limiting outlet density, hours of sale), responsible beverage service, advertising restrictions, warning labels, keg registration, and school policies. It is clear from the available research that no policy can be effective unless it is accompanied by enforcement and by awareness on the part of the intended targets of both the policy and the enforcement efforts.


Reference Number: EW1901                  Year of Publication: 2001
Authors: Grube, Joel; Treno, Andrew; Waiters, Elizabeth
Keywords: Adolescents, Advertising, Media Studies
Citation: Waiters, E.D.; Treno, A.J.; and Grube, J.W. "Alcohol advertising and youth: A focus group analysis of what young people find appealing in alcohol advertising," Contemporary Drug Problems, 28(4):695-718, Winter 2001.
Abstract: In an effort to ascertain how youths interpret, understand and respond to the themes and images portrayed in television alcohol advertisements, focus-group discussions were conducted with students ages 9-15 in a Northern California community. These discussions revealed that students like lifestyle and image-oriented elements of television beer commercials that are delivered with humor and youth-oriented music and/or characters. Conversely, they dislike product-oriented elements of alcohol commercials. Students identified the main message of television beer commercials as an exhortation to purchase the product based on its quality and its relationship to sexual attractiveness. Participants indicated that beer commercials imply that attractive young adults drink beer to personally rewarding ends. These findings suggest that television beer commercials may need to focus less on youthful lifestyle images and more on the product itself in order to appear less to young people.


Reference Number: GA1602                  Year of Publication: 2000
Authors: Ames, Genevieve; Grube, Joel; Moore, Roland
Keywords: Alcohol and Culture, Availability, Social, Occupational/Workplace Studies, Sociocultural Norms
Citation: Ames, G.M.; Grube, J.W.; and Moore, R.S. "Social control and workplace drinking norms: A comparison of two organizational cultures," Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61(2):203-219, March 2000.
Abstract: Objective: This article reports on an investigation of the relationship of social control mechanisms at work to drinking practices of 10,000 salaried and hourly employees working in the same U.S. industry, with the same union, but in two different work environments. One work environment reflected an organizational culture that is traditional to U.S. management; the other was based on a nontraditional Japanese transplant model. Method: The research team used a combination of methods including in-home surveys (N = 1,723; 1,378 men) and ethnography (110 semistructured interviews and 200 hours of direct observation inside the plants). Respondents were asked about general and work-related drinking, perceptions of drinking norms, strengths or weaknesses of alcohol-related policies and procedures for policy enforcement. Results: Although overall consumption rates in both populations were similar, significant differences between the two samples existed regarding work-related drinking. The Traditional (i.e., U.S.) model was associated with more permissive norms regarding drinking before or during work shifts (including breaks) and higher workplace drinking rates than the Transplant (i.e., Japanese) model. Analyses revealed that alcohol policies, and the extent to which policies are actually enforced, predicted drinking norms and alcohol availability at work. Drinking norms, in turn, predicted work-related drinking and accounted for differences in alcohol consumption between the two worksites. Analyses of ethnographic data provided descriptive understandings of aspects of the two organizational cultures that disabled mechanisms for social control of drinking in one setting and enabled those mechanisms in the other. Conclusions: These understandings of how social control mechanisms predict work-related drinking practices provide guidelines for alcohol problem prevention in a specific kind of occupational environment. However, our identification of aspects of social control that successfully regulate workplace drinking is applicable to other kinds of occupational settings as well.


Reference Number: JG1602                  Year of Publication: 2000
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Advertising, Media Studies
Citation: Grube, J.W. "Alcohol advertising: What are the effects?," 10th Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health: Highlights from Current Research, pp. 412-426. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, June 2000.


Reference Number: JG1701                  Year of Publication: 2000
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Media Studies, Sexual Behavior
Citation: Gruber, E. and Grube, J.W. "Adolescent sexuality and the media: A review of current knowledge and implications," Western Journal of Medicine, 172(3):210-214, March 2000. PMCID: PMC1070813


Reference Number: HH1606                  Year of Publication: 2000
Authors: Grube, Joel; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Ponicki, William; Saltz, Robert; Treno, Andrew; Voas, Robert
Keywords: Community-Based Prevention Programs, Consumption Patterns/Models, Drinking and Driving, Drinking Behavior, Injury, Traffic Safety
Citation: Holder, H.D.; Gruenewald, P.J.; Ponicki, W.R.; Treno, A.J.; Grube, J.W.; Saltz, R.F.; Voas, R.B.; Reynolds, R.; Davis, J.; Sanchez, L.; Gaumont, G.; and Roeper, P. "Effect of community-based interventions on high risk drinking and alcohol-related injuries," Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(18):2341-2347, November 8, 2000.
Abstract: Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of injury resulting from motor vehicle crashes and violent assaults.1 There is increasing evidence of a causal link between the availability of alcohol and traffic crashes2 and assaults3 in community settings. Previous evaluations of community-based programs to prevent alcohol-related injuries have focused specifically on fatal motor vehicle crashes4 or special populations, such as youth.5,6 We report an evaluation of a comprehensive, community-based environmental intervention to reduce rates of alcohol-related injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes and assaults.


Reference Number: GA1501                  Year of Publication: 1999
Authors: Ames, Genevieve; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Alcohol and Culture, Availability, Physical, Availability, Social, Occupational/Workplace Studies, Research Methodology
Citation: Ames, G.M. and Grube, J.W. "Alcohol availability and workplace drinking: Mixed method analyses," Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60(3):383-393, May 1999.
Abstract: Objective: This article investigates the relationship between subjective social and physical availability of alcohol at work and work-related drinking. Method: We integrated survey and ethnographic methods to determine if and why physical and social availability of alcohol predicted work-related drinking in a manufacturing plant with approximately 6,000 employees. Survey data were obtained from in-home interviews with 984 randomly selected workers. Respondents were asked about their overall and work-related drinking, their perceptions of the ease of obtaining or consuming alcohol in the plant, the work-related drinking of others and their approval/disapproval of work-related drinking by co-workers. Ethnographic data were obtained from 3 years of periodic onsite observations and semistructured interviews with key informants to investigate factors underlying alcohol availability and drinking at work. Results: Structural equations modeling of the survey data revealed that subjective social availability of alcohol at work, and particularly perceived drinking by friends and co-workers, was the strongest predictor of work-related drinking. Typical frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking were predictive also. Subjective physical availability of alcohol was not significantly related to drinking at or before work. Findings from the ethnographic analyses explained survey findings and described characteristics of the work culture that served to encourage and support alcohol availability and drinking. Conclusions: These results are the first to show significant relationships between alcohol availability and drinking at work, to explain dynamics of that relationship and to demonstrate the potential risks of using only quantitative or only qualitative findings as the basis for prevention.


Reference Number: JG1601                  Year of Publication: 1999
Authors: Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Expectancies
Citation: Grube, J.W. and Agostinelli, G.E. "Perceived consequences and adolescent drinking: Nonlinear and interactive models of alcohol expectancies," Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 13(4):303-312, 1999.
Abstract: Nonlinear and interactive models of alcohol expectancies and drinking were investigated using survey data obtained from junior and senior high school students on 2 occasions 2 years apart. Significant nonlinear and interactive effects were found in cross-sectional analyses. First, negative expectancies were most predictive when subjective likelihood was low. Second, drinking was highest when respondents believed that (a) negative consequences were unlikely and affective enhancement was likely and (b) both affective enhancement and social facilitation were likely. A simpler linear model was adequate for predicting changes in drinking, with both negative and affective enhancement expectancies having significant longitudinal effects. The results support the importance of alcohol expectancies but suggest that the relationships between these beliefs and adolescent drinking may be complex.


Reference Number: JG1407                  Year of Publication: 1998
Authors: Ames, Genevieve; Delaney, William; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Alcohol/Drug Treatment, Ethnographic/Qualitative Studies, Occupational/Workplace Studies, Social Influence
Citation: Delaney, W.P.; Grube, J.W.; and Ames, G.M. "Predicting likelihood of seeking help through the Employee Assistance Program among salaried and union hourly employees," Addiction, 93(3):399-410, March 1998.
Abstract: Aims: This research investigated belief, social support and background predictors of employee likelihood to use an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) for a drinking problem. Design: An anonymous cross-sectional survey was administered in the home. Bivariate analyses and simultaneous equations path analysis were used to explore a model of EAP use. Setting: Survey and ethnographic research were conducted in a unionized heavy machinery manufacturing plant in the central states of the United States. Participants: A random sample of 852 hourly and salaried employees was selected. Measurements: In addition to background variables, measures included: likelihood of going to an EAP for a drinking problem, belief the EAP can help, social support for the EAP from co-workers/others, belief that EAP use will harm employment, and supervisor encourages the EAP for potential drinking problems. Findings: Belief in EAP efficacy directly increased the likelihood of going to an EAP. Greater perceived social support and supervisor encouragement increased the likelihood of going to an EAP both directly and indirectly through perceived EAP efficacy. Black and union hourly employees were more likely to say they would use an EAP. Males and those who reported drinking during working hours were less likely to say they would use an EAP for a drinking problem. Conclusions: EAP beliefs and social support have significant effects on likelihood to go to an EAP for a drinking problem. EAPs may wish to focus their efforts on creating an environment where there is social support from coworkers and encouragement from supervisors for using EAP services. Union networks and team members have an important role to play in addition to conventional supervisor interventions.


Reference Number: GA1401                  Year of Publication: 1997
Authors: Ames, Genevieve; Grube, Joel; Moore, Roland
Keywords: Drinking Behavior, Ethnographic/Qualitative Studies, Occupational/Workplace Studies
Citation: Ames, G.M.; Grube, J.W.; and Moore, R.S. "The relationship of drinking and hangovers to workplace problems: An empirical study," Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58(1):37-47, January 1997.
Abstract: This article reports on the relationship between drinking patterns and workplace problems in a manufacturing facility operated by a Fortune 500 industry. Method: The data come from a survey of 832 hourly employees (88% male) and from ethnographic research in the plant. This study is distinctive because it examined a large random sample of workers, rather than an impaired subpopulation. Moreover, the study is among the few that has asked employees how much they drank prior to and during working hours and how frequently they had been hungover at work. Respondents were also asked about their overall alcohol consumption and their experience of various problems in the workplace. Results: Bivariate analyses indicated that overall drinking, heavy drinking outside of work, drinking at or just before work and coming to work hungover were related to the overall number of work problems experienced by respondents, and to specific problems such as conflicts with supervisors and falling asleep on the job. Multivariate analyses revealed that workplace drinking and coming to work hungover predicted work-related problems even when usual drinking patterns, heavy drinking and significant job characteristics and background variables were controlled. Overall drinking and heavy drinking outside the workplace did not predict workplace problems in the multivariate analyses. The analyses show that workplace problems were also related to age, gender, ethnicity, work shift and departments. Survey results are explicated with findings from a plant ethnography. Conclusions: Although the relationships are modest, they support the hypotheses that work-related drinking and hangovers at work are related to problems within the workplace and may lead to lowered productivity and morale.


Reference Number: JG1402                  Year of Publication: 1997
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Research Methodology
Citation: Grube, J.W. "Monitoring youth behavior in response to structural changes: Alternative approaches for measuring adolescent drinking," Evaluation Review, 21(2):231-245, April 1997.
Abstract: Random digit dial (RDD) telephone and self-administered school-based surveys of drinking and drinking and driving were compared for adolescents from two Northern California communities. The RDD and school-based surveys resulted in very different samples. The telephone sample contained a greater proportion of European Americans and a smaller proportion of Asian Americans and "other" ethnicities. Respondents to the telephone sample also tended to be older and of higher socioeconomic status (SES). The telephone survey captured very few school dropouts. Moreover, it resulted in lower self-reports of drinking and drinking and driving. Survey mode appeared to influence respondents equally, regardless of their gender, age, ethnicity, or SES.


Reference Number: JG1405                  Year of Publication: 1997
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Community-Based Prevention Programs, Program Evaluation, Responsible Beverage Service
Citation: Grube, J.W. "Preventing sales of alcohol to minors: Results from a community trial," Addiction, 92(Supplement 2):S251-S260, June 1997.
Abstract: This paper reports an evaluation of a community-based approach to prevent underage sales of alcohol. The interventions focused on (a) enforcement of underage sales laws, (b) responsible beverage service (RBS) training and (c) media advocacy. The interventions were implemented in three experimental communities located in California and South Carolina. Purchase survey data were obtained before and after the interventions in each experimental community and in three matched comparison communities. Logistic regression analyses of the purchase survey data for the individual community pairs and for the combined communities showed that sales to apparent minors were significantly reduced in the experimental sites. The findings indicate that these environmental interventions are promising prevention tools for communities that seek to reduce underage drinking.


Reference Number: JG1001                  Year of Publication: 1997
Authors: Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Cross-Cultural Studies, Drinking Behavior
Citation: Grube, J.W.; Chen, M.-J.; Madden, P.A.; and Morgan, M. "Drinking and drinking problems: A cross-national comparison of Irish and American adolescents," European Addiction Research, 3:75-82, 1997.
Abstract: Drinking and drinking problems were compared for American high school students (n = 1,928) and Irish postprimary students (n = 1,702). Irish students began drinking at an older age than American students, but reported higher prevalence rates for lifetime drinking, drank more frequently, and reported more frequent intoxication. Overall, the Irish students were more likely to report alcohol problems. American youth, however, reported higher rates on some specific alcohol problems (e.g., drinking and driving), Irish youth reported higher rates on other specific problems (e.g., getting into trouble with parents), and the samples did not differ on still other problems (e.g., getting sick from drinking). American boys and girls were more similar in their drinking patterns than were Irish boys and girls. Irish boys were consistently at greater risk for drinking and drinking problems than were other young people in the sample.


Reference Number: HH1417                  Year of Publication: 1997
Authors: Grube, Joel; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Saltz, Robert; Treno, Andrew; Voas, Robert
Keywords: Community-Based Prevention Programs
Citation: Holder, H.D.; Saltz, R.F.; Grube, J.W.; Treno, A.J.; Reynolds, R.I.; Voas, R.B.; and Gruenewald, P.J. "Summing up: Lessons from a comprehensive community prevention trial," Addiction, 92(Supplement 2):S293-S301, June 1997.
Abstract: This paper presents the findings and lessons from a community prevention trial involving three experimental communities in the United States to reduce alcohol-involved trauma. The paper provides recommendations for other community prevention efforts. Effectiveness was demonstrated by: (a) 78 fewer alcohol-involved traffic crashes as a result of the Drinking and Driving Component alone (approximately a 10% reduction); (b) a significant reduction in underage sales of alcohol, i.e., off-premise outlets sold to minors about one-half as often as in comparison communities; (c) increased implementation of responsible beverage service policies by bars and restaurants; and (d) increased adoption of local ordinances and regulations to reduce concentrations of alcohol outlets.


Reference Number: HH1410                  Year of Publication: 1997
Authors: Grube, Joel; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Saltz, Robert; Treno, Andrew; Voas, Robert
Keywords: Community-Based Prevention Programs, Injury, Mortality, Alcohol-Related
Citation: Holder, H.D.; Saltz, R.F.; Grube, J.W.; Voas, R.B.; Gruenewald, P.J.; and Treno, A.J. "A community prevention trial to reduce alcohol-involved accidental injury and death: Overview," Addiction, 92(Supplement 2):S155-S171, June 1997.
Abstract: The 5-year "Preventing Alcohol Trauma: A Community Trial" project in the United States was designed to reduce alcohol-involved injuries and death in three experimental communities. The project consisted of five mutually reinforcing components: (1) Community Mobilization Component to develop community organization and support, (2) Responsible Beverage Service component to establish standards for servers and owner/managers of on-premise alcohol outlets to reduce their risk of having intoxicated and/or underage customers in bars and restaurants, (3) Drinking and Driving Component to increase local DWI enforcement efficiency and to increase the actual and perceived risk that drinking drivers would be detected, (4) Underage Drinking Component to reduce retail availability of alcohol to minors, and (5) Alcohol Access Component to use local zoning powers and other municipal controls of outlet number and density to reduce the availability of alcohol. This paper gives an overview of the rationale and causal model, the research design and outline of each intervention component for the entire prevention trial.


Reference Number: HH1412                  Year of Publication: 1997
Authors: Grube, Joel; Holder, Harold; Saltz, Robert; Treno, Andrew; Voas, Robert
Keywords: Community-Based Prevention Programs, Program Evaluation
Citation: Holder, H.D.; Saltz, R.F.; Treno, A.J.; Grube, J.W.; and Voas, R.B. "Evaluation design for a community prevention trial: An environmental approach to reduce alcohol-involved trauma," Evaluation Review, 21(2):140-165, April 1997.
Abstract: The Community Prevention Trial was a 5-year effort to reduce alcohol-involved injuries and death through a comprehensive program of community awareness and policy activities. The three experimental communities were of approximately 100,000 population each (one in Northern California, one in Southern California, and one in South Carolina). Matched comparison communities were used for each experimental community. This article describes the evaluation approach used in a program that sought to change environmental factors not a specific population or target group. This approach demanded unique evaluation approaches for determining overall community aggregate effects, that is, distal outcomes, as well as changes in key mediating variables, that is, process effects. The problem of trending and lagged effects of community prevention programs are discussed.


Reference Number: HH1414                  Year of Publication: 1997
Authors: Grube, Joel; Holder, Harold; Saltz, Robert; Treno, Andrew
Keywords: Community-Based Prevention Programs, Program Evaluation
Citation: Holder, H.D.; Treno, A.J.; Saltz, R.F.; and Grube, J.W. "Summing up: Recommendations and experiences for evaluation of community-level prevention programs," Evaluation Review, 21(2):268-277, April 1997.
Abstract: This article provides recommendations and observations about evaluation of a locally based prevention project to reduce problems at a total community or aggregate level. The shift from targeting specific individuals or subpopulations to the overall structure and environment of a community is most demanding. Evaluation tools and analysis techniques have lagged behind program development because community-level interventions are not linked to a specific target group who can be separately studied. Thus assumptions about using random assignment and/or comparison communities as means to control for confounding variables are weakened when the unit of analysis is the community itself and dependent measures are subject to trending and the effects of history.


Reference Number: JG1401                  Year of Publication: 1997
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Drinking Behavior
Citation: Morgan, M. and Grube, J.W. "Correlates of change in adolescent alcohol consumption in Ireland: Implications for understanding influences and enhancing interventions," Substance Use & Misuse, 32(5):609-619, April 1997.
Abstract: Studies of two similar cohorts of students in Ireland in 1984 and 1992 showed a dramatic increase in the consumption of alcohol, especially in the frequency with which students reported being drunk. A comparison of measures obtained at both times showed that there were major changes with regard to beliefs about consequences of alcohol consumption in a direction favorable to consumption as well as increases in the perceived social support for drinking. However, there were no strong indications that changes in problem behavior were associated with the observed increases in drinking patterns. These results are supportive of some explanatory models of initiation to substance use and have associated implications for programs designed to reduce consumption.


Reference Number: JG1301                  Year of Publication: 1996
Authors: Grube, Joel; Voas, Robert
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Drinking and Driving
Citation: Grube, J.W. and Voas, R.B. "Predicting underage drinking and driving behaviors," Addiction, 91(12):1843-1857, December 1996.
Abstract: A social-psychological model of underage drinking and driving (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) was tested with data from a random digit dial telephone survey of 706 16-20-year-old drivers from seven western states in the United States. Consistent with the model, a structural equations analysis indicated that DUI and RWDD were primarily predicted by (a) expectancies regarding the physical risks of DUI, (b) normative beliefs about the extent to which friends would disapprove of DUI, (c) control beliefs about the ease or difficulty of avoiding DUI and RWDD and (d) drinking. Expectancies concerning enforcement had a significant effect on RWDD, but not on DUI. Among the background and environmental variables included in the analysis, only night-time driving and age had significant direct effects on DUI and RWDD. Drinking and involvement in risky driving had indirect effects on DUI and RWDD that were mediated through expectancies and normative beliefs. Males, European Americans, Latinos, respondents who drove more frequently and respondents who were less educated held beliefs that were more favorable toward DUI and RWDD, drank more and engaged more frequently in risky driving. As a result, such individuals may be at greater risk for DUI and RWDD.


Reference Number: JG1403                  Year of Publication: 1996
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: African American, Drinking Behavior, Race/Ethnicity
Citation: Herd, D. and Grube, J. "Black identity and drinking in the U.S.: A national study," Addiction, 91(6):845-857, June 1996.
Abstract: The relationship between ethnic identity and drinking patterns was explored in 1947 black adults from a nation-wide study of drinking behavior. Factor analysis revealed that a multi-dimensional construct which included four factors--media preferences, socio-political awareness, endogamy and social networks--was necessary to operationalize and measure the concept of ethnic identity. Using structural equation modeling, a model was tested which analyzed the impact of ethnic identification on religiosity and drinking norms, which in turn were predictors of drinking and heavier drinking latent variables. The results showed that ethnic identity influenced drinking behavior indirectly through its effects on drinking norms and religiosity as well as directly. Most aspects of ethnic identity decreased drinking levels. Respondents who scored higher on involvement with black social networks and black social and political awareness drank at lower levels than other respondents. These results were attributed to the prevalence of norms for abstinence and high levels of social control regarding drinking in black communities. However, high scores on using black media increased drinking rates. It was suggested that the promotion of alcohol use in black orientated media as well as the social settings attended by those who prefer black media might increase alcohol consumption.


Reference Number: JG1102                  Year of Publication: 1995
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Advertising, Children, Expectancies, Media Studies
Citation: Grube, J.W. "Television alcohol portrayals, alcohol advertising, and alcohol expectancies among children and adolescents." In S.E. Martin (ed.) The Effects of the Mass Media on the Use and Abuse of Alcohol (NIAAA Research Monograph No. 28) (NIH Pub No. 95-3743), pp. 105-121. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 1995.
Abstract: Does exposure to televised alcohol portrayals and advertisements influence children's and adolescents' alcohol expectancies and consequently their intentions to drink and their drinking behaviors? This question arises from a concern about the frequency and content of these portrayals and advertisements and the extent to which young people are exposed to them. The research evidence relevant to this question is considered here and critically evaluated. A model of the relationships among exposure to alcohol in the media, alcohol beliefs, and drinking behaviors is developed, and data are presented that test this model as it relates to exposure to television and to television beer advertisements.


Reference Number: JG1201                  Year of Publication: 1995
Authors: Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Expectancies
Citation: Grube, J.W.; Chen, M.-J.; Madden, P.; and Morgan, M. "Predicting adolescent drinking from alcohol expectancy values: A comparison of additive, interactive, and nonlinear models," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(10):839-857, 1995.
Abstract: Additive, interactive, and nonlinear models of alcohol expectancy values were compared using survey data from 1,758 high school students. Expectancies and values independently predicted drinking in the additive model. Expectancies were more important as predictors than were values, and negative expectancies were more important than positive expectancies. Significant expectancy-value interactions also were found. Drinking was highest when positive consequences were believed to be likely and desirable and was lowest when negative consequences were believed to be likely and undesirable. Significant nonlinearities indicated that beliefs about negative consequences had greater effects at lower levels of likelihood and evaluation whereas beliefs about positive consequences had greater effects at higher levels of likelihood and evaluation. However, the interactive and nonlinear effects were small.


Reference Number: HH1108                  Year of Publication: 1995
Authors: Grube, Joel; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Saltz, Robert; Treno, Andrew; Voas, Robert
Keywords: Community-Based Prevention Programs, Drinking and Driving, Injury, Traffic Safety
Citation: Holder, H.D.; Grube, J.W.; Gruenewald, P.J.; Saltz, R.F.; Treno, A.J.; and Voas, R. "Community approaches to prevention of alcohol-related accidents." In R.R. Watson (ed.) Drug and Alcohol Abuse Reviews, Vol. 7: Alcohol, Cocaine, and Accidents, pp. 175-194. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, Inc., 1995.


Reference Number: RS1101                  Year of Publication: 1995
Authors: Grube, Joel; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Saltz, Robert; Voas, Robert
Keywords: Alcohol Policy, Injury
Citation: Saltz, R.F.; Holder, H.D.; Grube, J.W.; Gruenewald, P.J.; and Voas, R.B. "Prevention strategies for reducing alcohol problems including alcohol-related trauma." In R.R. Watson (ed). Drug and Alcohol Abuse Reviews, Vol. 7: Alcohol, Cocaine, and Accidents, pp. 57-83. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, Inc., 1995.
Abstract: Drinking can increase the risk of injury and death depending on the activity or situation in which the drinkers find themselves. As a result, strategies to prevent or reduce the risk of alcohol-related trauma are best directed at drinking patterns or at drinking settings that involve risk or harm. The review of potential prevention strategies in this chapter identifies alternatives that have actually been implemented to reduce alcohol problems, whether they have been evaluated or not, and the available research evidence concerning the potential effectiveness of each strategy. The traditional public health model of prevention identifies three elements of prevention: (1) the host, (2) the environment, and (3) the agent. Applying this simple model to the reduction of alcohol problems one is therefore concerned with (1) The individual drinker and his or her decisions and personal values about the use of alcohol; (2) The environment that surrounds the drinking context, including the drinking context and setting, the social group in which drinking takes place, and the physical environment in which drinking occurs; (3) The agent or the alcoholic beverage itself, defined as beer, wine, and distilled spirits alone or any mixture of these with other liquids such as fruit juice, milk, sweets, and so on. This three-part public health model is used in this chapter to organize the overview of alternative prevention strategies, though in reality, interventions are often not easily categorized.


Reference Number: MJC1101                  Year of Publication: 1994
Authors: Chen, M.J.; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Drinking Behavior, Expectancies
Citation: Chen, M.-J.; Grube, J.W.; and Madden, P.A. "Alcohol expectancies and adolescent drinking: Differential prediction of frequency, quantity, and intoxication," Addictive Behaviors, 19(5):521-529, 1994.
Abstract: Although alcohol expectancies have been shown to be consistently related to drinking and problematic drinking among underage youth, some studies suggest that they are more predictive of quantity than of frequency of drinking. However, this hypothesis has not been formally tested. This study examines the differential prediction hypothesis using a sample of 1,781 high school students from the San Francisco Bay Area. Measures included yearly and monthly frequency of drinking and intoxication and usual quantity consumed per drinking occasion. Alcohol expectancies were measured with 11 items asking about the likelihood that having 2 or 3 whole drinks of alcohol would lead to specific personal consequences. Structural equations analyses indicated that expectancies were better predictors of quantity than of frequency or intoxication. The results also show that positive and negative expectancy subscales were differentially associated with the drinking measures and the patterns were somewhat different for males and females.


Reference Number: JG901                  Year of Publication: 1994
Authors: Grube, Joel; Wallack, Lawrence
Keywords: Advertising, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Children, Media Studies
Citation: Grube, J.W. and Wallack, L. "Television beer advertising and drinking knowledge, beliefs, and intentions among schoolchildren," American Journal of Public Health, 84(2):254-259, 1994. PMCID: PMC1614998
Abstract: Objectives: The relationships between television beer advertising and drinking knowledge, beliefs, and intentions were investigated in a survey of schoolchildren. The research was guided by a theoretical model specifying that awareness of advertising, and not mere exposure, is necessary for it to have an effect on beliefs or behaviors. Methods: Participants were a random sample of 468 fifth- and sixth-grade schoolchildren from a northern California community. Data were collected in the home with a combination of self-administered questionnaires and structured interviews. Results: Nonrecursive statistical modeling indicated that awareness of television beer advertising was related to more favorable beliefs about drinking, to greater knowledge of beer brands and slogans, and to increased intentions to drink as an adult. The effects of advertising awareness on knowledge, beliefs, and intentions were maintained when the reciprocal effects of beliefs, knowledge, and intentions on awareness were controlled. Conclusions: the findings suggest that alcohol advertising may predispose young people to drinking. As a result, efforts to prevent drinking and drinking problems among young people should give attention to countering the potential effects of alcohol advertising.


Reference Number: JG1101                  Year of Publication: 1994
Authors: Ames, Genevieve; Delaney, William; Grube, Joel
Keywords: Ethnographic/Qualitative Studies, Expectancies, Occupational/Workplace Studies
Citation: Grube, J.W.; Ames, G.M.; and Delaney, W. "Alcohol expectancies and workplace drinking," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24(7):646-660, 1994.
Abstract: The relationship between alcohol expectancies and work-related drinking was investigated in a survey of 984 employees from a large unionized manufacturing plant. Respondents were asked about their drinking at work, just prior to work, and in other contexts. Alcohol expectancies were measured by asking how likely or unlikely it was that work-related drinking would lead to 13 personal consequences. The items for this scale were derived from ethnographic interviews and observations in the plant and from a review of the workplace literature. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the expectancy items formed two scales representing positive and negative consequences. These scales predicted work-related drinking in a simultaneous equations path analysis, even when general drinking practices and background variables were controlled. The analysis also indicated that workers who were younger, Caucasian, hourly, on evening or night shifts, and frequent or heavy drinkers outside of work may be at risk for work-related drinking because of their alcohol expectancies.


Reference Number: JG1204                  Year of Publication: 1994
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values
Citation: Grube, J.W.; Mayton II, D.M.; and Ball-Rokeach, S.J. "Inducing change in values, attitudes and behaviors: Belief system theory and the method of value self-confrontation," Journal of Social Issues, 50(4):153-173, 1994.
Abstract: This paper summarizes some of the major principles of belief system theory and describes the method of value self-confrontation. An example of how value self-confrontation can be used to modify environmental values is provided. The research on value self-confrontation is reviewed and critically evaluated. Although there is support for belief system theory and for the efficacy of value self-confrontation as a means of inducing long-term change in important values, attitudes, and behaviors, a number of important questions remain unanswered. In particular, the psychological mechanisms underlying change in values, attitudes, and behaviors after value self-confrontation require clarification and further study.


Reference Number: JG1003                  Year of Publication: 1994
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Advertising, Media Studies, Tobacco
Citation: Madden, P.A. and Grube, J.W. "The frequency and nature of alcohol and tobacco advertising in televised sports, 1990 through 1992," American Journal of Public Health, 84(2):297-299, 1994. PMCID: PMC1615009.
Abstract: This study examines the frequency and nature of alcohol and tobacco advertising in a random sample of 166 televised sports events representing 443.7 hours of network programming broadcast from fall 1990 through summer 1992. More commercials appear for alcohol products than for any other beverage. Beer commercials predominate and include images at odds with recommendations from former Surgeon General Koop. The audience is also exposed to alcohol and tobacco advertising through the appearances of stadium signs, other on-site promotions, and verbal or visual brief product sponsorships. Moderation messages and public service announcements are rare.


Reference Number: JG1202                  Year of Publication: 1994
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Social Influence, Sociocultural Norms, Tobacco
Citation: Morgan, M. and Grube, J.W. "Lifestyle changes: A social psychological perspective with reference with cigarette smoking among adolescents," The Irish Journal of Psychology, 15(1):179-190, 1994.
Abstract: This paper examines the implications of social psychological influences on smoking behaviour for models of prevention. The main factors associated with initiation to and maintenance of smoking are examined with particular reference to normative influences, expectations about consequences, and personality and social variables. Each of these factors will be shown to inform approaches to prevention. In turn, the evidence for the effectiveness of these prevention models is outlined. Finally, the major questions for further development of the approaches to prevention are examined.


Reference Number: JG1203                  Year of Publication: 1994
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol and Culture, Drinking Behavior
Citation: Morgan, M. and Grube, J.W. "The Irish and alcohol: A classic case of ambivalence," The Irish Journal of Psychology, 15(2&3):390-403, 1994.
Abstract: Irish people consume less alcohol than the European average and spend no more on alcohol than people in most other countries. Yet a combination of the pattern and visibility of Irish drinking has created a national image of heavy drinking. The present paper advances the view that Irish ambivalence to alcohol is central to understanding the many distinctive features of our attitudes. Against this background, attention is given to the relatively high rate of abstinence, the very complex web of legal provisions and the costs and benefits of alcohol. The change in adolescent drinking is of great interest in its own right, given the remarkable increase in the last decade. The great public concern about youthful drinking is also of interest and can be said to be a feature of the ambivalent attitudes that are central to Irish thinking about 'the drink'.


Reference Number: JG801                  Year of Publication: 1994
Authors: Grube, Joel; Wilson, Dawn
Keywords: Drinking and Driving, Research Methodology
Citation: Wilson, D.K. and Grube, J.W. "The role of psychosocial factors in obtaining self-reports of alcohol use in a DUI population," Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 8(3):139-151, 1994.
Abstract: Psychosocial and situational factors were examined as predictors of discrepant reports between driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenders and their collaterals. Psychosocial factors included respondents' expectancies about telling the truth, normative beliefs, attitudes, confidentiality, perceived tension, and certainty about their accuracy. Subjects' reports were assessed in 1 of 3 settings: self-administered at DUI school, group administered at DUI school, or self-administered at home. Overall, respondents reported greater alcohol intake than collaterals. Respondents also reported greater levels of drinking when they were more certain of their accuracy and when they were concerned that confidentiality might be violated. Discrepancies between respondent-collateral reporting were primarily attributable to psychosocial factors and not to situational factors. Decreased collateral familiarity with the respondent's drinking was also related to greater discrepancies.


Reference Number: JG1002                  Year of Publication: 1993
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Advertising, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Children, Media Studies
Citation: Grube, J.W. "Alcohol portrayals and alcohol advertising on television: Content and effects on children and adolescents," Alcohol Health & Research World, 17(1):61-66, 1993.
Abstract: Although parents, peers, and environmental factors can strongly influence the drinking beliefs and behaviors of young people, beliefs and behaviors may also be shaped by exposure to alcohol on television programs and by alcohol advertising. Concern over the effects of alcohol advertising on youth is widespread. According to a recent alcohol industry survey, for example, 73 percent of the general public believe that alcohol advertising is a major contributor to underage drinking (Lipman 1991). Similarly, it has often been suggested that the portrayals of alcohol consumption, called alcohol portrayals, on television provide inappropriate messages about drinking and may, in fact, encourage young people to drink. To what extent are these concerns well founded? This article addresses this question by reviewing the available research on the frequency and nature of television alcohol portrayals and alcohol advertising, and by considering the evidence about the effects of exposure to those portrayals and advertisements on children and adolescents.


Reference Number: JG1103                  Year of Publication: 1993
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: African American, Context, Drinking/Drug Use, Drinking Behavior, Gender, Race/Ethnicity
Citation: Herd, D. and Grube, J. "Drinking contexts and drinking problems among black and white women," Addiction, 88(8):1101-1110, August 1993.
Abstract: This study explored whether black and white women differ in how often they drink in particular types of social settings and if drinking in different contexts independently predicts alcohol-related problems. The analysis was based on the interview responses of 635 black and 663 white women drinkers who represent sub-samples from a nationwide survey of 5221 respondents conducted in 1984. The findings revealed that white women are more likely to attend restaurants, bars and parties away from home than black women and that a larger proportion of their alcohol consumption occurs in these settings than among black women. Factor analysis was used to develop scales on the frequency of drinking in different social contexts. The results confirmed a three-dimensional factor structure that distinguished between drinking at home; drinking in social settings such as bars, restaurants and parties; and drinking in outdoor public areas like streetcorners and parks. A simultaneous equations path analysis was used to model the relationships among drinking contexts, the frequency of heavier drinking, drinking problems, race and other social characteristics. The major findings of the resulting models were that drinking contexts independently predict drinking problems and that race is not directly associated with drinking contexts or alcohol-related problems. However racial differences do exert significant indirect effects on social settings and drinking problems through differences in socio-economic status and normative attitudes. The conclusion emphasizes the complexity of the interrelationships of ethnic and social characteristics that underlie visible racial differences in the social patterns and situational contexts of alcohol use.


Reference Number: JG902                  Year of Publication: 1991
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Social Influence
Citation: Morgan, M. and Grube, J.W. "Closeness and peer group influence," British Journal of Social Psychology, 30:159-169, 1991.
Abstract: This study hypothesized that closeness of peer group relationships would be a critical factor in determining peer influence on substance use. The hypothesis was examined in a panel study of the effects of peer approval and behaviour on cigarette smoking, drinking and other drug use among Irish adolescents. In support of the closeness hypothesis, the influences relating to peers identified by respondents as 'friends' were better predictors of drug use than were the corresponding factors relating to same-aged peers, while the person identified as the 'best friend' seemed uniquely influential. Furthermore, there were important differences associated with maintenance of drug use as opposed to initiation, both as regards the type of friends and the mediating factors that were important. In particular, it emerged that several good friends were influential (by means of example and approval) in initiation, while the best friend had a critical role in the maintenance of drug use.


Reference Number: JG505                  Year of Publication: 1990
Authors: Breed, Warren; Grube, Joel; Wallack, Lawrence
Keywords: Advertising, College Students, Media Studies
Citation: Breed, W.; Wallack, L.; and Grube, J.W. "Alcohol advertising in college newspapers: A 7-year follow-up," Journal of American College Health, 38(6):255-262, May 1990.
Abstract: The authors report on the frequency and nature of alcohol advertisements in a representative sample of college newspapers from 1984/85 and compare these with results of a similar study conducted 7 years earlier, in 1977/78. On average, nearly 24 column inches of space per issue were devoted to national alcohol advertisements in 1984/85. This represents a significant decrease from an earlier period. The space devoted to national alcohol advertisements, however, still far exceeded that for comparison products (books, soft drinks). Local alcohol advertisements averaged 20 column inches per issue and were somewhat more frequent than in the previous study. The content of the advertisements differed markedly from the messages presented 7 years earlier. Although national alcohol advertisements in 1977/78 frequently ridiculed education and study, none did so in 1984/85, when appeals were to taste and product quality instead. Fantasy themes also were relatively common. Very few national alcohol advertisements featured athletes or group drinking. Sponsorship of campus activities by the alcohol industry, however, had increased since the earlier study. In contrast to national advertisements, many local advertisements consisted of inducements to drink through special offers and happy hours. Some encouraged irresponsible and heavy drinking. Interestingly, alcohol advertisements were just as frequent in papers from states with higher minimum drinking ages and were more frequent in papers from campuses with higher proportions of women students.


Reference Number: JG603                  Year of Publication: 1990
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Drinking Behavior, Drugs, Illicit, Tobacco
Citation: Grube, J.W. and Morgan, M. "Attitude-social support interactions: Contingent consistency effects in the prediction of adolescent smoking, drinking, and drug use," Social Psychology Quarterly, 53(4):329-339, 1990.
Abstract: We tested an interactive model of attitudes and perceived social support in a panel survey of substance use among Irish postprimary students. We hypothesized that contingent consistency interactions would be more likely 1) for perceived social support from friends than from parents; 2) for perceived substance use by others than for verbal support; 3) in predicting change than in predicting current substance use; 4) for younger than for older adolescents; and 5) for drug use than for dinking and smoking. Contrary to predictions, we found significant contingent consistency interactions for all three behaviors and regardless of the age of the students. These interactions were more likely when predicting current behavior rather than behavior change. The significant interactions primarily involved perceived substance use by friends. Increased accessibility, selective friendship choices, and rationalization processes are possible explanations for the findings.


Reference Number: JG605                  Year of Publication: 1990
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Cross-Cultural Studies
Citation: Grube, J.W. and Morgan, M. "The structure of problem behaviours among Irish adolescents," British Journal of Addiction, 85(5):667-675, May 1990.
Abstract: Problem behaviour theory proposes that adolescent substance use and other problem behaviours comprise a single dimension reflecting a general underlying tendency towards deviance. This general deviance hypothesis was tested with survey data obtained from 2731 adolescents from Dublin, Ireland. A series of hierarchical maximum likelihood factor analyses indicated that three specific factors were necessary to account for the covariation among problem behaviour measures. These factors corresponded to substance use (drinking, smoking, marijuana use, and other drug use), relatively minor problem behaviours (swearing, lying), and relatively serious problem behaviours (stealing, vandalism). Contrary to the general deviance hypothesis, a second order factor representing general deviance accounted for only 14% of the variance in substance use, on the average, as opposed to 74% of the variance in minor and serious problem behaviours. These findings thus indicate that substance use among these Irish adolescents is relatively independent of a general tendency toward deviance. They also suggest that the general deviance hypothesis, as it usually is applied, may be culturally specific and relevant only for adolescents from the United States and similar cultural contexts.


Reference Number: JG601                  Year of Publication: 1990
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Tobacco
Citation: Grube, J.W.; Rokeach, M.; and Getzlaf, S.B. "Adolescents' value images of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers," Addictive Behaviors, 15(1):81-88, 1990.
Abstract: Adolescents' value images of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers were investigated in a study of high school graduates. Overall, smokers were seen as being concerned with values related to personal enjoyment and autonomy. In contrast, nonsmokers were perceived as being more conventional, and more concerned with religious, interpersonal, and family values. Images of ex-smokers usually were intermediate, but resembled those of nonsmokers somewhat more than those of smokers. Interestingly, ex-smokers were perceived to place more importance on values relating to accomplishment and self-control than were either smokers or nonsmokers. In general, the value images were consistent among respondents who themselves were smokers, potential smokers, or nonsmokers. However, for a few values smokers and potential smokers had a more favorable image of smokers than did nonsmokers. Interestingly, males and females generally did not differ in their images of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers. Suggestions for prevention of adolescent smoking based on the value images are discussed.


Reference Number: JG604                  Year of Publication: 1990
Authors: Breed, Warren; Grube, Joel; Wallack, Lawrence
Keywords: Drinking Behavior, Media Studies
Citation: Wallack, L.; Grube, J.W.; Madden, P.A.; and Breed, W. "Portrayals of alcohol on prime-time television," Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 51(5):428-437, September 1990.
Abstract: Alcohol portrayals were analyzed for a 3-week composite sample of prime-time fictional television programs aired in the fall of 1986. Approximately 64% of the 195 episodes contained one or more appearances of alcohol. Alcohol was ingested on 50% of all programs. Overall, there were 8.1 alcohol drinking acts per hour. Movies made-for-television had the highest rate of drinking acts per hour (10.0) followed by situation comedies (9.2) and then theatrical movies (7.4) and dramas (7.4). Within the category of dramas, evening soap operas stand out with 13.3 acts per hour. Drinking and nondrinking characters were compared on a number of attributes relevant to role modeling. Regularly appearing characters were more likely to drink than nonregular characters. Drinking characters also tended to be of high status, largely being white, upper-class professionals. A time trend analysis showed a regular increase in alcohol on television from 1976 to 1984, reaching 10.2 acts in 1984. After 1984 the trend appears to reverse.


Reference Number: JG502                  Year of Publication: 1989
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Research Methodology
Citation: Grube, J.W.; Morgan, M.; and Kearney, K.A. "Using self-generated identification codes to match questionnaires in panel studies of adolescent substance use," Addictive Behaviors, 14(2):159-171, 1989.
Abstract: The usefulness of self-generated codes for anonymously linking data in panel studies of adolescent substance use was investigated in a study of Irish post-primary students and sample bias resulting from this procedure considered. A seven element code exactly matched 71% of questionnaires over one month when school absences were taken into account. Allowing codes to differ on one element to compensate for respondent errors increased matching success to 88% without resulting in appreciable mismatching. Unmatched compared with exactly matched respondents tended to be male, lower SES, have more spending money, and were less closely bonded to school and religion. They also were more involved in smoking, drinking, and drug use and had more favorable beliefs toward these behaviors. Off-one respondents generally were intermediate on these measures. However, the differences were small and the characteristics of the combined match respondents closely resembled those of the total sample. When predicting substance use, the regression coefficients were quite similar for the matched and unmatched groups and the total sample. The data thus provide evidence for the usefulness of self-generated codes in panel and longitudinal studies of adolescents when anonymity and confidentiality are of concern.


Reference Number: JG602                  Year of Publication: 1989
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Drinking Behavior
Citation: Grube, J.W.; Morgan, M.; and Seff, M. "Drinking beliefs and behaviors among Irish adolescents," The International Journal of the Addictions, 24(2):101-112, February 1989.
Abstract: Drinking beliefs and behaviors were investigated in a survey of 2,700 Irish postprimary students. Overall, 47% of the students reported drinking within the month prior to the survey. Drinking was most frequent among older students and males. A regression analysis indicated that perceived peer drinking was the primary predictor of current alcohol use. Smoking and involvement with other problem behaviors were also important, and parental disapproval had a small effect. This pattern of results is similar to that found in other countries and provides evidence for the applicability of social learning and problem behavior theories to an understanding of adolescent drinking in another cultural context.


Reference Number: JG503                  Year of Publication: 1989
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Tobacco
Citation: Morgan, M. and Grube, J.W. "Adolescent cigarette smoking: A developmental analysis of influences," British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7:179-189, 1989.
Abstract: This study investigated the influence of various factors associated with smoking behaviour among a randomly selected sample of 3000 Dublin post-primary school pupils. A specific focus was the extent to which these influences change with age during adolescence (13-17 years). Normative influences on smoking behaviour increased up to age 15-16 years and then declined. This curvilinear pattern seems largely due to the rise and decline of peer influences over these years. On the other hand, the influence of parents (both in terms of parental example and approval) is constant over this period. Beliefs about the consequences of smoking were also affected by age. The distinctive contribution of such beliefs to the prediction of smoking doubled during the years under consideration. These results have important implications for the understanding of susceptibility to social influence during adolescence and for the design of effective smoking prevention programmes.


Reference Number: JG701                  Year of Publication: 1989
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Cross-Cultural Studies, Drugs, Illicit
Citation: Morgan, M. and Grube, J.W. "Drug use in Irish schools: A comparison with other countries," Oideas, 34:21-30, 1989.
Abstract: What is the most serious drug problem in Irish schools in the late eighties? Depending on what criteria one adopts the answer might be "cigarettes", or "alcohol", or one of the illegal substances. What will become clear is that in order to decide on the seriousness of a drug problem, it is necessary to consider not only the numbers using the substance, but also the comparison with other times and other countries, the probability of addiction, the consequences to the individual involved, the effects on others in the family, etc. People value each of these criteria differently, with the result that the grounds for identifying the "size" of a drug problem (if indeed there is a problem at all) are many and varied. Unfortunately, the legal/illegal distinction does not help very much, since by some criteria (e.g. number of deaths caused) the "legal" substances cause most problems.


Reference Number: JG504                  Year of Publication: 1987
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Adolescents, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values
Citation: Morgan, M. and Grube, J. "Consequences of maternal employment for adolescent behavior and attitudes," Irish Journal of Psychology, 8(2):85-98, 1987.
Abstract: The present study compared the reported behaviours, attitudes and self-images of a large group of Dublin adolescents whose mothers were in employment outside the home (36 per cent of the whole sample) with a group of adolescents whose mothers worked exclusively in the home. The major difference emerging related to sex-typing, with children of employed mothers tending to reject traditional sex-role attitudes to a greater extent than did the comparison group. Contrary to popular belief, there was no indication of an association of maternal employment with anti-social behaviour, poor self-image or drug use. Furthermore, the employed mothers were seen to be no less adequate as parents than were the fulltime mothers. Finally, in comparison to children of fulltime mothers, the children of mothers in employment had higher academic aspirations in the sense that they predicted that it was more likely that they would go on to third-level education.


Reference Number: JG403                  Year of Publication: 1986
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Sociocultural Norms, Tobacco
Citation: Grube, J.W.; McGree, S.; and Morgan, M. "Beliefs related to cigarette smoking among Irish college students," The International Journal of the Addictions, 21(6):701-706, 1986.
Abstract: Beliefs related to cigarette smoking were investigated in a college student sample. Regular smokers, compared with nonsmokers and occasional smokers, perceived more approval for their smoking and believed that their peers smoked more frequently. They perceived positive social and physiological consequences of smoking (e.g., feel more relaxed) to be more likely, and negative consequences (e.g., feel sick) to be less likely. While they did not see long-term health consequences (e.g., increasing chances of cancer) as less likely, they evaluated them less negatively. Finally, smokers placed less importance on the value health than did nonsmokers or occasional smokers. These findings suggest that intervention programs aimed at discouraging smoking by young people should be multifaceted.


Reference Number: JG401                  Year of Publication: 1986
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Sociocultural Norms, Tobacco
Citation: Grube, J.W.; Morgan, M.; and McGree, S.T. "Attitudes and normative beliefs as predicators of smoking intentions and behaviours: A test of three models," British Journal of Social Psychology, 25:81-93, 1986.
Abstract: This paper considers three potentially important modifications to the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein, 1980). It was hypothesized that (i) behavioural norms, or beliefs about the behaviours of others, are important influences above and beyond subjective norms; (ii) the effects of attitudes and normative beliefs on intentions and behaviours are interdependent and interactive rather than additive; and (iii) the beliefs underlying subjective and behavioural norms are multidimensional rather than unidimensional. These hypotheses were tested in two surveys of smoking intentions and behaviour. The respondents in the first study were primary school children and those in the second study were college students. In both cases behavioural norms and the attitude-normative belief interactions led to significant increases in the prediction of smoking intentions and behaviour. Exploratory factor analyses also suggested that the beliefs underlying subjective norms may be multidimensional rather than unidimensional. These results thus support the hypotheses and suggest that the theory of reasoned action should be modified accordingly.


Reference Number: JG302                  Year of Publication: 1984
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Children, Tobacco
Citation: Grube, J.W.; McGree, S.; and Morgan, M. "Smoking behaviours, intentions and beliefs among Dublin primary school children," The Economic and Social Review, 15(4):265-288, 1984.
Abstract: Cigarette smoking and related beliefs were investigated in a survey of 752 Dublin sixth class primary school children. Smoking rates and differences in the beliefs and background of smokers and non-smokers are described. The relative importances of different beliefs as predictors of future smoking intentions also were ascertained. For both boys and girls the most important predictors of intentions were perceived peer smoking and evaluation of negative consequences of smoking. Parental smoking also was important for boys and parental disapproval and perceived likelihood of negative consequences were important for girls. The implications for smoking interventions among young people are discussed.


Reference Number: JG301                  Year of Publication: 1984
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values, Tobacco
Citation: Grube, J.W.; Weir, I.L.; Getzlaf, S.; and Rokeach, M. "Own value system, value images and cigarette smoking," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 10(2):306-313, 1984.
Abstract: It has been suggested that smoking among young people results from a need to confirm self-images and thus is more likely to be adopted by those whose self-images are similar to images of smokers. Conversely, nonsmoking is expected to occur among those whose self-images are similar to images of nonsmokers. This study investigates the similarity between value images of smokers and nonsmokers and the terminal and instrumental value systems of junior high school students and recent high school graduates. Overall, the respondents' value systems were considerably more similar to images of nonsmokers than to images of smokers. However, for both age groups, those identified as smokers or potential smokers were more similar to images of smokers than were nonsmokers. Moreover, potential smokers were less similar to images of nonsmokers than were nonsmokers or smokers. Unexpectedly, these latter groups did not differ significantly in their similarity to images of nonsmokers. These results partially replicate previous findings and generally support the hypotheses.


Reference Number: JG201                  Year of Publication: 1983
Authors: Grube, Joel
Keywords: Drinking and Driving, Legal and Regulatory Issues
Citation: Grube, J.W. and Kearney, K.A. "A "mandatory" jail sentence for drinking and driving," Evaluation Review, 7(2):235-246, April 1983.
Abstract: The Yakima (Washington State) Drinking and Driving Project was intended to change public attitudes toward drinking and driving, and to decrease its incidence by implementing a two-day jail sentence for persons convicted of driving while intoxicated. This evaluation was undertaken to assess the implementation and impact of the Yakima Project. Data were obtained through surveys of the public and of law enforcement personnel and from official accident, Breathalyzer® and court records. It was found that the jail sentence was well received by the law enforcement officers and by the public, and possibly led to changes in public attitudes. However, it did not reduce alcohol involvement in accidents and thus apparently did not decrease the incidence of drinking and driving. Lack of public awareness and variability in judicial enforcement were identified as factors that may have contributed to this failure.